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QuestionAnswer
The composition of lymp most closely resembles interstitial fluid or tissue fluid
What are the functions of the lymphatic system ? Drain excess interstitial fluid Transport dietary lipids Send immune responses to microbes & abnormal cells
How do lymphatic vessels travel in the skin and in the viscera? In the skin : Close to the Veins In the Viscera : Close to the Arterys
Where are lymphatic capillaries located? in between cells
What regions/organs do not have lymphatic capillaries ? CNS, Parts of the spleen , Avascular tissue , Red bone marrow
Where does the thoracic duct begin ? At the lower end ,as a dilation
Where does the thoracic duct deliver lymph to? Left Internal Jugular Vein & Subclavien Veins
How much does the thoracic duct drain of body lymph? 75%
Where does the right lymphatic duct receive lymph from ? Right side of the body
Where does the thoracic duct receive lymph from ? Left side of :The Head/Neck , Ribs & down, Left upper limb & Chest.
What are the primary lymphatic organs? Red bone marrow & Thymus
Why are they called primary lymphatic organs? They produce B & T Lymphocytes
What are the secondary lymphoid organs? Lymph Nodes, Lymphatic Nodules & Spleen
What organ filters lymph ? Only lymph nodes filter lymph
What are the primary functions of the spleen? Lymphocyte Proliferation Immune Surveillance & Response Cleanses Blood
What organ functions strictly in T lymphocytes maturation ? Thymus
Vertebral body Largest portion of vertebra
Vertebral Arch Extends posteriorly from the vertebral body of the vertebra & surrounds the spinal cord
Pedicles two short, thick processes form the base of the vertebral arch. Project posteriorly & unite with laminae.
Laminae flat parts that join pedicles to form posterior of vertebral arch.
Spinous Process projects posteriorly from the junction of the laminae.
Transverse Process junction of laminae & pedicle . extends posterolaterally
Sacrum Triangular bone formed by 5 sacral vertebrae. foundation for pelvic girdle.
What condition is known as a herniated disc ? Slipped disc, ruputured annalous firosus, nucleus pulposus ,
Outer most meninx Dura Mater. Dense irregular CT. Expands from foramen magnum to sacral vertebra.
Middle Meninx Arachnoid Mater. CT. Spider web like. Collagen fibers & Elastic Fibers. Subdural space surrounds it & it is filled with interstitial fluid.
Innermost Meninx Pia Mater. Attached to spinal cord & brain. CT. Collagen fibers & Elastic Fibers. Blood Vessels.
What is the epidural space ? Provides protection for spinal cord
Where is the epidural space located ? A space between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral canal,
What does the epidural space contain ? containing areolar connective tissue and a plexus of veins.
Where is the sub-arachnoid space located? a space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
What does the sub-arachnoid space contain ? Cerebrospinal fluid
Denticulate Ligament membraneous extensions of the pia mater.
Filum Terminale Extension of pia mater. attaches spinal cord and coccyx.
Conus Medullaris Lower end of the spinal cord, tapering, cone shaped.
Cauda Equina Roots of spinal nerves emerging from the lower part of the spinal cord traveling inferiorly.
The adult spinal cord extends only to which vertebral level? L1-L2
Where is the spinal tap normally performed ? L4-L5
What does white matter contain ? bundles of myelinated axons of motor neurons , interneurons & sensory neurons
What does the gray matter contain? consists primarily of cell bodies of neurons, neuroglia , unmyelinated axons & dendrites of interneurons & motor neurons.
What does the anterior horn contain ? cell bodies of somatic motor neurons & motor nuclei. provide nerve impulses for contraction of skeletal muscles
What does the posterior horn contain ? contain somatic & autonomic sensory nuclei
What does the lateral gray horn contain ? contain cell bodies od autonomic motor neurons. Regulate activites of involuntary effectors. (only present in thoracic, upper, lumbar & sacral segments )
How many pairs of the Spinal nerves? 31
How many pairs of Cervical nerves? 8
How many pairs of Thoracic nerves? 12
How many pairs of Lumbar nerves? 5
How many pairs of Sacral nerves? 5
How many pairs of Coccygeal nerves? 1
What does a ventral root of a spinal nerve contain ? Motor Neuron axons. Which transmit nerve impulses from spinal cord to effector organs and cells.
What does a dorsal root of a spinal nerve contain ? Sensory Nevre Fibers. Which transmit nerve impulses from the periphery into the spinal cord.
How is a spinal nerve formed? Formed by a root. Spinal nerve arises from Spinal cord as a series of small rootlets, which then become large roots. Each nerve is formed by merging of posterior and anterior root.
Where do spinal nerves exit ? Intervertebral foramen.
What are the rami of the spinal nerves ? Posterior ( Dorsal) Ramus Anterior (Ventral ) Ramus
What region does the posterior ramus serve ? Deep muscle & skin of the posterior surface of the trunk.
What region does the anterior ramus serve ? Muscles & structures of the limbs & the skin of the lateral & anterior surfaces of the trunk.
What are plexuses ? The anterior rami of spinal nerves, except for thoracic nerves T2-T12, form networks on both right and left sides of the body that are called plexuses
Do the anterior rami from all of the spinal cord segments form plexuses? No
How do the spinal nerves T2-T12 differ from all the other spinal nerves ? They do not enter into foramation of plexuses & are called intercostal or thoracic nerves.
Dermatome the area of the skin that provides sensory input to one pair of spinal nerves or to cranial nerve V (for the face and scalp)
Endoneurium layer in which axons are wrapped
Perineurium groups of axons with their endoneuria are arranged in bundles called fasciculi, and each fasciculus is wrapped in a layer called the perineurium
Epineurium groups of fasciculi collectively form a nerve which is covered by a layer called the epineurium
What is a reflex arc ? is a autonomic, rapid response to the internal or external stimuli
What are the components of a typical reflex arc? Sensory receptor, Sensory neuron, Integrating center , Motor neuron, Effector
Sensory Receptors responds to a stimulus by producing a receptor potential.
Sensory Neurons axon conducts impulses from receptor to integrating center.
Integrating Center one or more regions of gray matter in CNS.
Motor Neuron axon conducts impulses from integrating center to effector.
Effector muscle or gland.
Created by: lin_linxo