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Lng of Med Ch 2

Body Terms

anabolism process of building up complex materials from simple materials
catabolism process of breaking down complex materials to form simpler substances and release energy
cell membrane structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell
chromosomes rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes. There are 46 in each cell except eggs and sperm which have 23
cytoplasm all material that is outside the nucleus but contained in the cell membrane.
DNA chemical found within each chromosome.
endoplasmic reticulum structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces. Ribosomes are found on the endoplasmic reticulum.
genes regions of DNA within each chrosome
karyotype picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. they are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.
metabolism the total chemical processes in a cell. It includes both anabolism and catabolism
mitochondria structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy
nucleus control center of the cell. contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell
adipose tissue collection of fat cells
cartilage flexible connective tissue attached to bones at the joint.
epithelial cells skin cells that cover the external body surface and lines the surface of organs
histologist specialist in the study of tissues
larynx voice box, located in the upper part of the trachea
pharynx throat. passageway for food and air
pituitary gland endocrine gland at the base of the brain
thyroid gland endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
trachea "windpipe"
ureter one of two tubes, each leading from a kidney to the urinary bladder
urethra tube from bladder to the outside of the body.
uterus the womb
viscera internal organs
abdominal cavity space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abdomen
cranial cavity space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull
diaphragm muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
dorsal pertaining to the back
mediastinum centrally located space between the lungs
pelvic cavity space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs. It's composed of the hip bones.
peritoneum double-layered membrane surrounding the abdominal organs
pleura double-layered membrane surrounding each lung
pleural cavity space between the pleural membranes surrounding each lungs
spinal cavity space within the spinal column. also called the spinal canal
thoracic cavity space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs
ventral pertaining to the front
hypochondriac upper right and left regions beneath the ribs
epigastric upper middle region near the stomach
lumbar middle right and left regions near the waist
umbilical central region near the navel
inguinal lower right and left regions near the groin. also called the iliac regions
hypogastric lower middle region below the umbilical region
cervical neck region
thoracic chect region
lumbar loin (waist) region
sacral (region of the sacrum)
coccygeal region of the coccyx (tailbone)
vertebra a single backbone
vertebrae backbones
spinal column bone tissue within the spinal cavity
spinal cord nervous tissue within the spinal cavity
disk a pad of cartilage between vertebrae
deep away from the surface
distal far from the point of attachment to the trunk, far from the beginning of a structure
inferior below
lateral pertaining to the side
medial p2 the middle
prone lying facedown
proximal near the point of attachment to the trunk. Near the beginning
sagittal lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body into right and left
superficial on the surface
supine lying face up
transverse cross sectional
Created by: Desiray