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Anatomy test 2

What is the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living things? The cell
What is organized protoplasm made up of? All of the various biomolecules discussed
What are the main compounds? H20, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
What are the main elements? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
How do cells differ? They vary in size and shape to facilitate function
What kind of relationship do cells have? A form/function relationship
What are the functions of Squamous/Flat cells? To cover and protect
What are the functions of Columnar/Column-like cells? To absorb and secrete
What are the functions of Muscle-Long cells? To contract and facilitate movement?
What are the four things that all cells have? A cell membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and a nucleus (At some point in their development)
What type of cells lack a nucleus? Mature red blood cells?
What is cell membrane? -A delineating boundary -An active and functional part of the cell -Phospholipids and proteins are the main constituents in unequal amounts -Consists of a phospholipid bi-layer irregularly interspersed with proteins
What is cytoplasm? Found within the cell membrane and outside of the nucleus
What are organelles? Tiny organs which carry out specific functions within a cell
What are two other names for the cell membrane? The fluid Mosaic model or the plasma membrane
What is the fluid mosaic model/plasma membrane? The cell membrane
What are the two main constituents in the cell membrane, and in what amount? Phospholipids and proteins in unequal amounts
The cell membrane consists of what type of bi-layer? A phospholipid bi-layer irregularly interspersed with proteins
What are very polar molecules with two distinct ends; A head and tail? Phospholipids
The phospholipid tail can be broken down by what? Broken down by water
Is the phospholipid tail Hydrophobic or Hydrophilic? Hydrophobic
Is the phospholipid head Hydrophobic or Hydrophilic? Hydrophilic
Phospholipid heads protect the tail from what? Water
What does Hydrophobic mean? Avoids water
What does Hydrophilic mean? Attracted to water
What are the five functions of the cell membrane and what type of channel is used for transport? -To serve as a boundary and maintain integrity of the cell -Communication -Immunity -Catalyst -Identification Protein channels are used for transport
What are phospholipids largely responsible for in the cell membrane? Creating the boundary
What type of permeability does the cell membrane have? Semipermeable membrane
What does semipermeable mean? Allowing for some substances to pass while restricting the passage of other substances
The communication of the cell membrane happens on what level? A chemical level; Chemical phenomenon
What is a function of some of the outer membrane proteins that serve as receptor sites for chemical messages? Communication
Proteins which serve as receptor sites for for chemical messages are in the form of what? Neurotransmitters or hormones
What is the immunity in the cell membrane a function of? Membrane proteins
How and where do membrane proteins protect? Like a white blood cell at the surface of the cell; they combine with foreign pathogens and neutralize them
What are the functions of some membrane proteins in the form of enzymes, in the cell membrane? To catalyze reactions at or near the cell surface
What does it mean to catalyze reactions? To speed up reactions
What kind of proteins in the cell membrane serve to identify the cell as belonging or not belonging to that organism? Marker proteins
What are marker proteins important in blood transfusions? You need to have a compatible blood type for a blood transfusion
What are the protein channels in the cell membrane for? Transport
What do solutions contain? Solutes dissolved in a solvent
What is a solute? Dissolved in a solvent
What is a solvent? Dissolves a solute
What is a Brownian movement? A random, ceaseless, non-directional motion of particles in solution.
What does the Brownian movement come from? The radiant energy contained in all matter
What is a Hypertonic solution? More concentrated than the comparison solution by having a higher number of solutes
What is a Hypotonic solution? Less concentrated than the comparison solution by having a lower number of solutes
What is an Isotonic solution? Equally as concentrated as the comparison solution by having the same number of solutes
What is another name for passive transport? Physical transport
What type of membrane transport requires no expenditure of energy by the cell to accomplish the transport? Passive transport
What role does diffusion play in passive transport? The movement of solute particles in all directions within a solution, or in both directions across a semipermeable membrane
What direction does diffusion always occur Down a concentration gradient
What is the direction of the net diffusion of particles? From where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
When does diffusion stop? When equilibrium is reached and particles are equally distributed throughout the enviornment
What role does Osmosis play in passive transport? The diffusion of water molecules
What direction does water move during osmosis? From where there is more water to where there is less water
How can osmosis be defined? The tendency of water to move across a semipermeable membrane into a solution with a higher concentration of dissolved particles
What is dialysis? The separation of crystalloids from colloids
How does dialysis separate the crystalloids from colloids? By diffusion of cyrstalloids across a membrane permeable to the crystalloids only
What is a crystalloid? Small, usually inorganic, molecules that are usually dissolved in a solution
What is a Colloid? Large, usually organic, molecules which tend to be suspended in solution rather than dissolved
Which type of diffusion utilizes a carrier molecule, most commonly a membrane protein to accomplish diffusion? Facilitated diffusion
What is the movement of both solute and solvent in one direction only,across a membrane and down a hydrostatic pressure gradient, regardless of of concentration gradient? Filtration
In the body, how is hydrostatic pressure generated? The pumping action of the heart
What is another term for active transport? Physiological transport
What type of transport requires ATP input from the cell and energy from the cell to accomplish transport Active transport
What is exocytosis? Bulk movement of materials out of a cell
How is waste organized? Into vacuoles which migrate to the cell membrane, attach, and then pump waste out
What is endocytosis? Bulk movement of materials into a cell
During endocytosis, what is the bulk movement of particulate matter into the cell if the material is a solid, what is a term for it? Phagocytosis and cellular eating
What is the wholesale engulfment of fluids, also termed cellular drinking? Pinocytosis
What is a pinoglotic vesicle? Fluid flows in and the membrane pinches off, the vesicle with fluid now moves into a cell. Only happens with liquid
What are tiny organs? Organelles
What level structure is an organelle? Sub-cellular
What do organelles do? Carry out specific functions in a cell
What are physiological pumps? Active transport mechanisms that move ions or molecules across cell membranes against their concentration graidents
How do physiological pumps move ions or molecules? By altering the membranes permeability to the ions or molecules with expenditure of energy
What are two types of organelles? Membranous and non-membranous organelles
What are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum? Rough ER and Smooth ER
What is a complicated network of channels, canals, and sacs that extend throughout the cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum
What is the endoplasmic reticulum often continuous with? The cellular membrane, the nuclear membrane, or both
What is the endoplasmic reticulum thought to be involved with? Maintenance and repair of cellular membranes
What kind of appearance does the rough er have? A studded appearance
Why does the rough er have a studded appearance? The presence along the surface of numerous ribosomes
What is the rough er involved with? The synthesis, short term storage, packaging and transport of proteins
What specific proteins are being synthesized, stored, packaged and transported in the rough er? Specifically those designed for use outside of that particular cell
What are the five types of passive transport? Diffusion, osmosis, dialysis, facilitated diffusion, and filtration
What are the three types of Active transport Physiological pumps, exocytosis, and endocytosis
What are the 8 membranous organelles? Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, vacuoles, vesicles, and the nucleus
What are the two non membranous organelles? Ribosomes, and centrioles
Which er has no ribosomes? The smooth er
What is manufactured in the smooth er? Carbohydrates and lipids
What structure is similar yet distinct from the er system? The Golgi complex
What is the Golgi complex structure like? A series of flattened sacs or vesicles
What is the Golgi complex often in conjunction with and attached to? The nucleus and often attached to the nuclear membrane
What 2 functions is the Golgi complex involved with? 1. The synthesis and packaging of secretions such as hormones or enzymes, for release through exocytosis. 2. Renewel and repair
What will the Golgi complex do with the proteins and carbs from the er system? Modify and repackage (assemble glycoproteins)
What are double membrane bound organelles with inner and outer membranes? Mitochondira
What two organelles are the only ones with a double membrane? Nucleus and mitochondrion
Which two organelles are the only ones with DNA? Nucleus and mitochondrion
What is the mitochondria involved with? Energy production
What are the folds in the mitochondria membrane? Cristae
Where is most of the energy by cells produced? In the mitochondria or cristae
What two energy functions is the mitochondria involved with? The krebbs cycle and electron transport
How much of the cells energy is produced from the mitochondria? 95%
How much energy is produced in the cytoplasm during glycolosis? 5%
What are membrane bound organelles with enclosed sacs of hydrolytic enzymes? Lysosomes
What can hydrolytic enzymes do? They can break down virtually every molecule in the cell
What is the function of lysosomes? To be the cells own digestive system by breaking down worn out and malfunctioning organelles, so they can be recycled.
Why must lysosomes constantly rebuild themselves? Enzymes are constantly eating through lysosomal membranes
How can lysosomes destroy the cell? Autodestrucing and eating through much of it
Which membrane bound organelles contains enzymes that neutralize toxic materials? Peroxisomes
What are the toxic materials in a cell? Usually byproducts of the cells metabolism, as well as from outside the body
Why do peroxisomes break down fatty acids and other organic compounds? They create potentially harmful substances suh as hydrogen peroxide
What do other enzymes in the peroxisomes break down hydrogen peroxide to? O2 and H2O
What does the peroxisome protect from? Potentially dangerous substances and other free radicals produced during metabolism
Where are peroxisomes found in high numbers? The liver
What are vacuoles and vesicles? Membranous sacs in the cytoplasm besises the lysosomes and peroxisomes, which can store substances
Which double membrane bound organelles has pores in its membrane? The nucleus
What is the name of a semifluid that is similar to but distinct from cell cytoplasm? Nucleoplasm
What is the granular material consisting of DNA and Histone protein in the nucleus? Chromatin
What happens to the chromatin during mitosis? Chromatin condenses to a visable form called chromosomes
What happen to histone proteins during mitosis? The histone proteins cause the chromatin to coil up
What does the nucleolus consist of? DNA, RNA, Histones, and enzymes
Where are rRNA and Ribosomes made? The nucleolus
How many nucleoluses can a nucleus contain? Up to 4
Where are nucleolus found in higher number? In muscle and liver tissue where protein is synthesized in high amounts
What is DNA synthesis? Replication
What is RNA synthesis? Transcription
What are three nuclear functions? 1.Stores and transmits genetic information in DNA 2.The site of replication 3.The site of transcription
What are microscopic spheres comprised of a combination of RNA and protein in various locations throughout the cell? Ribosomes
What are fixed ribosomes? Ribosomes attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum
What is the main function of fixed ribosomes? Protein synthesis of exported proteins
What are polyribosomes? Ribosomes that cluster together in the cytoplasm
What is the function of polyribosomes? Synthesize proteins for use inside the cell
What is scattered throughout the the cytoplasm and non-functional? Individual ribosomes?
What must happen for ribosomes to function? They must attach themselves to the rough er or cluster together
What appears at right angles to each other? Centrioles
Centrioles are involved in the formation of what? Cilia and flagella
What are cilia? Tiny hair like projections of the cell membrane and cytoplasm/ 9 groups of 3 microtubules around the edges surronding 2 micro tubules 9+2. Short and numerous
What are flagella? Long whip like extensions of cell membrane and cytoplasm. Has the same 9+2 arangement. They move the whole cell itself. flagella are long and few
What are organizations of cells that specialize in one or more functions that serve the body as a whole? Tissues
What are the four main types of tissue? Epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous
What lines and covers body parts in epithelial tissue? Sheets
What type of tissue is highly cellular and has little matrix? Epithelial
The intercellular material in Epithilial tissue consists of what? Hyaluronic acid
What is hyaluronic acid? A type of cellular super glue secreted by cell membranes
What kind of tissue is avascular?
Created by: Hallierob1012



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