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CCRI-Newport Q2

QuestionAnswer
adipose tissue This is a type of connective tissue. Functionally it is the primary site for excess energy storage, it insulates, and forms pads.
anterior Toward the front. We will mostly use this for humans. For example, the human sternum is anterior to the vertebral column. It is sometimes used in cats, for example the thoracic cavity of the cat is anterior to the abdomen.
blood A type of connective tissue. There are seven types of blood cells. Red Blood Cells carry oxygen and help pH, White Blood Cells (5 types) fight nfections, and Platelets aid in clot formation.
bone tissue A type of connective tissue. It has three components: hydroxyapaptite, bone collagen, and cells.
bulk flow Bulk flow involves the movement of relatively large amounts of materials being moved over relatively large distances in a short period of time. The primary bulk flow system is the circulatory system. It is supplemented by the lymphatic system.
cardiac muscle Muscle tissue found in the heart. It has attributes similar to both skeletal muscle and smooth muscle. Functionally it is responsible for creating pressure gradients that are responsible for most blood flow.
cartilage May be elastic, fibrous, or hyaline – Found in joints. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue.
caudal Toward the tail. We will mostly use this for cats. For example, the cat's neck is caudal to the head. It is sometimes used in humans as synonymous with inferior.
cell The simplest structural and functional unit of life. For example, an epithelial cell and a muscle cell are cells. This is also something some of you may have spent time in, but that is not important in this course.
cilia A hair-like organelle that is part of some epithelial cells. Cilia are found in the respiratory system and oviducts of humans. In humans it usually functions in moving material adjacent to the cell.
columnar A type of epithelial cell that is taller than it is wide, as in a column.
conduct impulses Nerve Tissue
connective tissue Functional importance: plays a role in holding other tissues together, provides protection, insulates, plays a role in bulk flow, immunity, and storage of excess energy. Typically contains a large percentage of intercellular matrix.
coronal plane A plane that cuts a human into anterior and posterior portions. This plane would cut a cat into ventral and dorsal portions. Also known as a frontal plane.
cranial Toward the head. We will mostly use this for cats. For example, the cat's head is cranial to the neck. It is sometimes used in humans as synonymous with superior.
cross section A plane that cuts across the LONG axis of an object. This plane would cut a human into superior and inferior portions. This plane would cut a cat into cranial and caudal portions. Also Known as a transverse plane.
cuboidal A type of epithelial cell that are nearly as tall as they are wide, like a cubic structure.
deep Toward the inside. We will use this for humans and cats. For example, the muscles are deep to the skin.
dense connective tissue Makes up the periosteum and pericardium. It is part of connective tissue proper.
distal Away from the attached end of an appendage. We will mostly use this for parts of the appendages and their girdles. For example, the wrist is distal to the elbow.
dorsal Toward the back. We will mostly use this for cats. For example, the cat's vertebral column is dorsal to the sternum. It is sometimes used in humans as synonymous with
epithelial tissue This tissue covers and lines the body, ducts, and vessels. Functionally it forms a barrier, helps prevent abrasion, blocks UV light, secretes, absorbs, and is capable of significant regeneration. Typically has little or no intercellular matrix.
forms barrier Epithelial Tissue.
frontal plane A plane that cuts a human into anterior and posterior portions. This plane would cut a cat into ventral and dorsal portions. Also known as a coronal plane.
glial cells These cells are nerve tissue. They protect, insulate, and support neurons. They are
Haversian canal These canals house blood vessels in bones. Functionally they are important because the osteocytes require a blood supply. Without these the bones would die. Haversian canals are sometimes called central canals, nutrient foramina, or blood channels.
immunity Connective Tissue
inferior Below. We will mostly use this for humans. For example, the human neck is inferior to the head. It is sometimes used in cats, for example the sternum is inferior to the vertebral column in the cat.
insertion The attachment of a skeletal muscle that USUALLY moves during the contraction of the muscle. The insertion is also USUALLY distal.
insulation Connective Tissue
interneurons A neuron that is completely within the central nervous system. Interneurons transmit impulses between the sensory neurons and the brain, the brain and the motor neurons and in reflex arcs between the sensory and motor neurons (functional classification)
involuntary muscle See smooth muscle. The term refers to the fact that the cells cannot be controlled voluntarily. Although cardiac muscle is involuntary, we will reserve use of this term as synonymous with smooth muscle.
lateral Away from the midline. We will use this in both humans and cats. For example, the nipple is lateral to the sternum. In the anatomical position the human thumb is lateral to the little finger.
left On the side of the body to the north when the subject is facing east.
longitudinal plane See sagittal plane. Some authors use this as being synonymous with coronal planes too, but we will keep it simple and use it only for sagittal planes.
loose connective tissue The fascia – ex: axillary sheath. It is part of connective tissue proper.
medial Toward the midline. We will use this in both humans and cats. For example, the sternum is medial to the nipple. In the anatomical position, the human little finger is medial to the thumb.
motor neurons A neuron that conducts impulses from the central nervous system to an organ. They are also called efferent neurons. This is a functional classification.
movement Muscle Tissue
nerve tissue This tissue includes conductive cells and the cells that act in a supportive role. Functionally they are important in sensory activity and communication between the organs and the central nervous system.
neurons Do not divide and are poor at repair
nutrient foramen See Haversian canal.
oblique plane Any plane that is not a transverse, sagittal, or coronal plane.
organ A group of cells and tissues with at least one specialized function. For example, the ulna bone, and the biceps brachii are organs.
organism A collection of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems that is capable of sustaining life at some point in time. For example, I and I think you are organisms.
organ system A group of cells, tissues, and organs that have at least one specialized function. For example, the skeletal system, nervous system, and reproductive system are systems.
origin The attachment of a skeletal muscle that USUALLY remains motionless during the contraction of the muscle. The origin is also USUALLY proximal.
ova The ovum is the female gamete. In the human it normally has 23 chromosomes. It is released from the ovary at ovulation and may be fertilized in the distal third of the oviduct.
parasagittal plane A plane that cuts a human or cat into left and right portions but does not cut them in the middle.
posterior Toward the back. We will mostly use this for humans. For example, the human vertebral column is posterior to the sternum. It is sometimes used in cats, for example the abdomen of the cat is posterior to the thoracic cavity.
pressure gradients Muscle Tissue
prevent abrasion Epithelial Tissue
protect against ultra violet light Epithelial Tissue
proximal Toward the attached end of an appendage. We will mostly use this for parts of the appendages and their girdles. For example, the elbow is proximal to the wrist.
reduce water loss or gain Epithelial Tissue
reproductive tissue Cells from two people that form a new person.
right On the side of the body to the south when the subject is facing east.
sagittal plane A plane that cuts a human or cat into left and right portions.
satellite cells These are support cells for the neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). They surround the cell body of the neurons.
Schwann cells These are support cells for the neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Functionally they are important because the produce the myelin sheath that surrounds and insulates the axons of many neurons.
secretion A secretion is a chemical substance made and then released by the cells of glandular organs. Secretions perform some useful function. An example would be salivary amylase, an enzyme produced by the salivary glands. This material helps digest starches.
sensory neurons A neuron that usually conducts impulses from sensory receptors to the central nervous system. They are also called afferent neurons. This is a functional classification.
skeletal muscle Muscle tissue usually attached to bones. Functionally it is responsible for creating pressure gradients to move fluids and gases within the body, movement of the body, thermoregulation, and support against gravity.
smooth muscle Muscle tissue usually found in the walls of tubular organs. Functionally it is responsible for creating pressure gradients that are responsible for moving fluids within the body.
spermatozoa The spermatozoon is the male gamete. In the human it normally has 23 chromosomes. It develops a flagellum while in the duct of the epididymis. This organelle propels the cell. Spermatozoa (pleural) usually travel in herds.
squamous A type of epithelial cell that is relatively flat.
striated muscle See skeletal muscle. The term refers to the fact that under a microscope the cells appear to be striped. Although cardiac muscle is striated, we will reserve use of this term as synonymous with skeletal muscle.
superficial Located at or close to the surface. We will use this in humans and cats. For example, the skin is superficial to the muscles.
superior Above. We will use this mostly for humans. For example, the human head is superior to the neck. It is sometimes used in cats. For example, the cat's vertebral column is superior to its sternum.
support against gravity Muscle Tissue
thermoregulation Muscle Tissue
tissue A group of cells with similar origin, structure, and function. Their are five primary tissues in the body: connective, epithelial, muscle, nerve, and reproductive.
transverse plane A plane that cuts across the LONG axis of an object. This plane would cut a human into superior and inferior portions. This plane would cut a cat into cranial and caudal portions.
ventral Toward the side where the sternum is. We will mostly use this for cats. For example, the cat's sternum is ventral to the vertebral column. It is sometimes used in humans as synonymous with anterior.
voluntary muscle See skeletal muscle. The term refers to the fact that the cells can be controlled voluntarily under most circumstances.
Wharton's jelly This is a type of connective tissue found only in the umbilical cord.
Created by: kboyer