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Anatomy Chapter 19

Nutrition and Metabolism

term that refers to the food that we eat and the nutrients they contain Nutrition
use of nutrients Metabolism
breaking Catabolism
building Anabolism
produces bile, maintains normal blood glucose, produces prothrombin and fibrinogen, detoxifies the body, and stores vitamins and minerals liver
The energy transferred to ATP molecules differs in two ways from the energy stored in nutrient molecules 1) the energy in ATP molecules is not stored but is released almost instantaneously. 2) It can be used directly to do cellular work
normal glucose levels 80-110 mg in 100 mL of blood
Lowers glucose levels Insulin
Hormones that increase glucose levels Growth hormone, hydrocortisone, epinephrine, glucagon
fats not needed for catabolism are instead stored where in the adipose tissue
formulation of glucose or glycogen from protein or fat compounds gluconeogenesis
assembled from a pool of at least 20 different kinds of amino acids Protein
amino acids that must be in a diet Essential
amino acids that can be missing from the diet that can be made by the body Nonessential
organic molecules needed in small quantities for normal metabolism throughout the body Vitamins
free radicals antioxidant
vitamins A,D,E, and K fat soluble vitamins
vitamins B and C water soluble vitamins
vitamin deficiency avitaminosis
vitamin C deficiency scurvy
vitamin excess hypervitaminosis
inorganic elements that are found in the Earth Minerals
rate at which nutrients are catabolized when that individual is resting basal metabolic rate
total amount of energy used by the body per day total metabolic rate
refusal to eat anorexia
"food binge" and then induce vomiting Bulimia
over eating behavior, can cause diabetes, cancer, and heart disease obesity
abnormal condition resulting from a deficiency of calories in general and protein in particular Protein calorie malnutrition
lack of calories and proteins marasmus
protein deficiency and sufficient calories Kwashiorkor
flow of heat waves away from the blood radiation
transfer of heat energy to the skin and then the external environment conduction
transfer of heat energy to air that is continually flowing away from the skin convection
absorption of heat by water vaporization evaporation
two of the body's processes that can be altered to adjust the body's temperature shivering and secretion of metabolism-regulating hormones
high body temperature, pyrogens fever
abnormally increased body temperature when exposed to certain anesthetics malignant hyperthermia
environmental temperatures are high, normal body temperature maintained, causes weakness heat exhaustion
sunstroke, the inability of the body to maintain a normal temperature heatstroke
extremely cold environment and body temperature is lower than 95 hypothermia
local damage to tissues caused by extremely low temperatures. Reduction of blood flow. Causes necrosis and gangrene frostbite
can get from eating carrots and is good for the eyes Vitamin A
can get from meats and grains and is good for cholesterol B3
can get from vegetables, meat, grains, and dairy products and is good for energy B6 and B12
can get from vegetables, meat, and eggs and is good for the hair, skin, and nails biotin
can get from vegetables and is good for blood cell formation and for pregnant women folic acid
citrus, and is good for the immune system and healing Vitamin C
from dairy products and fish liver oil, is good for the bones Vitamin D
from green vegetables and seeds, is good for the heart Vitamin E
from spinach and other vegetables, and meat/dairy products, is good for blood clotting Vitamin K
from dairy and vegetables and is good for the bones Calcium
from seafood and iodized salt, good for the thyroid Iodine
from meats, eggs, vegetables, good for the blood Iron
from vegetables and grains, good for regulation Magnesium
from seafood, milk, fruit, and meat, is good for muscles Potassium
from salty foods, good for nerves Sodium
from many foods and is good for the immune system Zinc
Created by: Blogan



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