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AHP 318.Test 2

Medical terminology AHP 318 Ch 5

An/o anus
Append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
bucc/o cheek
cec/o cecum
celi/o belly abdomen
cheil/o lip
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct
col/o colon large intestine
colon/o colon
dent/I tooth
duoden/o duodenum
enter/o intestines usually small intestine
esophagi/o esophagus
faci/o face
gastr/o stomach
giniv/o gums
gloss/o tongue
hepat/o liver
ile/o ileum
jejun/o jejunum
labi/o lip
lapar/o abdomen
lingu/o tongue
mandibule/o lower jaw mandible
odont/o tooth
or/o mouth
palat/o palate
pancreat/o pancreas
peritone/o peritoneum
pharyng/o throat
proct/o anus and rectum
pylor/o pyloric sphincter
rect/o rectum
sialaden/o salivary glands
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
stomat/o mouth
uvul/o uvula
amyl/o starch
vil/i/ gall bile
bilirubin/o bilirubin bile pigment
chol/e gall bile
chlorhydr/o HCL
gluc/o sugar
glyc/o sugar
glycogen/o glycogen animal starch
lip/o fat lipid
lith/o stone
prote/o protein
sial/o saliva
steat/o fat
ase enzyme
chezia defecation elimination of waste
iasis abnormal condition
prandial meal
3 functions:Digestion - Start with complex food materials - Chemical/mechanical breakdown of food enzymes Mastication
3 functions:Absorption digested food moves into the bloodstream via the small intestine cell catabolism in the presence of oxygen cell anabolize too (amino acids into proteins) FA and glycerol enter lymphatic vessels first
3 functions:Elimination solid waste/unabsorbed food concentrated in the large intestine into feces
Tonsill/o tonsils, lymphatic tissue Filter Produce lymphocytes
Rugae irregular ridges on anterior hard palate
Labial against the lip Incisors and canine
Buccal against the cheek Premolars and molars
Lingual against the tongue (all teeth)
Mesial nearest to the middle w/r/t medial line
Distal farthest from the middle (medial line)
Occlusal top surface
Incisal sharp edge on incisors and cuspids
Crown above the gum line
Root within the bony tooth socket
Enamel outermost protective layer Hardest substance in the body
Dentin main substance of the tooth Beneath the enamel Throughout the crown Bony tissue that is softer than enamel
Cementum covers, supports, protects dentin in the root
Periodontal membrane surrounds the cementum, holds tooth in the socket
Pulp soft delicate tissue under the dentin Blood vessels, nerve endings, connective tissue, lymphatic vessels are in the pulp (root) canal
Salivary Glands 3 pairs, Parotid gland, Submandibular gland, Sublingual gland
Salivary Glands Exocrine glands that produce saliva,Enzymes, cytokines, proteins,Produce 1.5 liters of saliva daily
Pharynx aka throat,5” long tube of muscle lined with mucous,
Pharynx Allows air movement between nose and windpipe (trachea),Swallowing engages the epiglottis,Allows movement of food between oral cavity and esophagus
Esophagus 9-10” muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach
Peristalsis involuntary, progressive movement of muscle to carry food bolus
Stomach Bolus leaves esophagus and enters into the stomach,3 main parts
Fundus upper portion
Body middle section
Antrum lower portion
Stomach Prepares food for the small intestine,Which is where digestion and absorption take place,Makes food chemically ready and physically small – takes 1-4 hours per bolus
Stomach Sphincters muscle rings that control movement into and out of the stomach Lower esophageal sphincter
Pyloric sphincter allow food to leave the stomach
Rugae folds in the stomach
Digestive glands pepsin production (proteins) and HCl
Small intestine (small bowel) 20 feet long,Pyloric sphincter to the large intestine
Small intestine (small bowel) 3 parts,Duodenum,Jejunum,Ileum
Small intestine (small bowel) Contains millions of villi,Tiny microscopic projections,Absorb nutrients into the blood stream and lymph vessels
Duodenum 1st section of small intestine,1 foot long,
Duodenum Receives food from stomach, bile from the liver and gallbladder,Pancreatic juice (enzymes) from pancreas,Gets food ready for 2nd section,Jejunum and ileum.
Jejunum Second part of small intestine,8 feet long,
Ileum Third section of small intestine, 11 feet long,Connects to the large intestine
Large intestine (large bowel) From ileum to anus,3 parts
Large intestine (large bowel) Cecum,Colon,Rectum
Large intestine (large bowel) Receives fluid waste from digestion,Absorbs most of the H2O from the waste,Stores the rest (feces or stool) until released from the body through defecation
Cecum right-sided pouch Connects ileum to the ileocecal valve (sphincter),Appendix hangs from the cecum
Colon 5 feet long,4 named segments,
Ascending Cecum to under surface of liver, left at hepatic flexure
Transverse Horizontally left towards the spleen, down at splenetic flexure
Sigmoid Shaped like an S, begins at distal end of descending colon and leads to the rectum,Rectum terminates at the anus
Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas Involved in digestion and absorption of nutrients,Are considered to be accessory organs
Liver RUQ of the abdomen,Makes bile (thick orangish or black fluid)
Emulsification (detergent-like effect) in duodenum Contains cholesterol (fat),Bile acid (continuous release)
Bile pigment Bilirubin (from hemoglobin breakdown)
conjugated in the liver enters the intestine with bile
Stool coloring is determined by bilirubin degradation by bacteria
Remember jaundice: bilirubin in the blood (eyes, skin, mucous membranes) hyperbilirubinemia
Bile goes through the hepatic duct to the cystic duct to the gallbladder
Liver Maintains normal blood glucose levels
Glycogen (starch) excess sugar stored in liver cells
Glycogenolysis not enough sugar in the blood
Gluconeogenesis sugar from fat /protein
Liver Makes clotting factors,And other blood proteins
Liver Releases bilirubin,RBC destruction,
Liver Removes toxins from the body,detoxification
Gallbladder Pear-shaped sac under the liver
Gallbladder Stores and concentrates bile for later,After meals when bolus is in stomach and duodenum bile is forced out of the cystic duct into the common bile duct
Pancreas Secretes pancreatic juice (enzymes) into the pancreatic duct (this joins the common bile duct at the duodenum)
Pancreas Endocrine function Secretes insulin to the blood stream
Pancreas Exocrine function Enzymes to duodenum for digestion via the pancreatic duct
Amylase digests starch
Lipase digests fat
Protease digests protein
Achlorhydria Chronic gastritis or gastric carcinoma
Anorexia Lack of appetite,Often has component of liver involvement, Diarrhea
Dysphagia Movement problems in esophagus or tumor/swelling blocking passage of food,Feeling of a lump in the back of the throat
Gastroesophageal Reflux Heartburn,possibly due to hiatal hernia
Jaundice/icterus Orangish-yellow color in skin, mucous membranes, eyes Hyperbilirubinemia
Hepatic/Hepatocellular malfunction disease
Posthepatic/Obstructive choledocholithiasis
Prehepatic/Hemolytic excessive RBC destruction
Melena Black, tarry stools due to blood in feces above the duodenum,Digested blood
Hematochezia – passage of fresh, bright-red blood from the rectum,Colitis,Ulcers,Polyps
Steatorrhea Fat discharged in feces,Froth-foul-smelling fecal matter,– Improper digestion or absorption,Usually a pancreatic problem
Froth foul-smelling fecal matter
Aphthous Stomatitis (Canker Sores) Small, painful oral ulcers,Unknown etiology
Herpetic Stomatitis (Fever blisters or cold sores) Caused by Herpes virus, usually HSV-1,gingiva, lips, palate, tongue
Oral Leukoplakia White patches in the mouth, precancerous, tobacco
Periodontal Disease Gingivitis,may require gingivectomy,Dental plaque (bacteria), dental calculus, tartar,possibly pyorrhea
Esophageal varices Swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus,Liver disease makes it worse
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
Peptic ulcer Open sore or lesion in the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum Helicobacter pylori
Anal Fistula abnormal tubelike passageway near anus,Often due to fissure,may be congenital, or from injury, infection, metastasis, childbirth,
Colonic Polyposis Small benign growths in colon on the mucous membrane
Colorectal cancer adenocarcinoma of the colon, rectum, or both,Warning signs: Unexplained cramps or abdominal bleeding, leukocytopenia, weight loss, bloody stools
Diverticula Outpouching of colonic mucosa in the intestinal wall,Low residue diets may contribute to cause,may lead to diverticulitis/diverticulosis
Dysentery Painful intestines,Bacteria, amoeba, viruses
Intussusception Telescoping of a segment of the intestine ,Most often in infants and small children ,Barium enema to confirm & usually surgery to correct,Ileocecal region is a common spot
Volvulus twisting of intestines,blocks flow, usually infant,medical emergency surgery to prevent necrosis
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Associated with stress, spastic colon, no pathological lesions,Lots of fiber
Ulcer Open sore/lesion of epithelial tissue,Examples: Gastric or peptic ulcers
Ulcerative Colitis Chronic Inflammatory disease of the colon, possible diarrhea with blood or pus,can be debilitating,Increases risk of colon cancer
Cirrhosis Cirrh/o
Cholelithiasis gallstones in the gallbladder,Bile obstruction,Biliary colic
Pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas,Autodigestion of tissues by digestive enzymes ,Alcohol abuse, drug abuse, gallstone obstruction, viral infections,Acute symptoms mimic appendicitis, cholecystitis, ulcers Symptom - Steatorrhea
Hepatitis Inflammation of liver due to drugs, chemicals, environmental poisons, alcohol, parasites, viruses,Causes jaundice
3 major types of viral hepatitis:Hepatitis A (HAV),Food and water, usually a complete recovery
3 major types of viral hepatitis Hepatitis B (HBV) Blood transfusion, sexual contact, contaminated needles
3 major types of viral hepatitis Hepatitis C (HCV) Blood transfusion, contaminated needle sharing
Hepatitis A Virus Oral/Fecal spread,poor hygiene and sanitary conditions
Hepatitis B Virus Spread mainly through sexual intercourse, contaminated needles/sharp objects and mother to child,found in most body secretions if infected,5-10% become carriers or chronic
Hepatitis C Virus Contaminated sharp objects and mother to child,55-85% become chronic,number 1 indication for liver transplant ,
Hemolytic Pre-hepatic,excessive destruction of RBC’s due to HDN,Too much bilirubin for the liver to conjugate so all can’t be excreted in urine Possibility of Bilirubin crossing blood-brain barrier to brain
Hepatic Due to disease (hepatitis/cirrhosis) or damage in the liver,Cells unable to extract bilirubin from blood and/or excrete it into bile duct,If not extracted, increase of unconjugated in blood
Obstructive post-hepatic,Bilirubin can’t reach gut for further breakdown,Inability of bilirubin to be excreted because,Gallstones blocking duct,Outside pressure,Cancer of pancreas
Obstruction of liver canaliculi following drugs,fatty alcohol liver,early acute viral hepatitis
Crohn’s Disease Chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin usually affecting ileum and/or colon,Frequent diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, nausea, fever, chills, weakness, anorexia, weight loss,Often confused with ulcerative colitis
Ulcerative Colitis Chronic, episodic, inflammatory disease of large intestine and rectum,Watery diarrhea with blood, mucus, pus,Patients often appears calm but have a great deal of hostility and anxiety,Debilitating disease that may prevent normal functioning
Liver function tests (LFT) test for enzymes and bilirubin in the serum
ALT alanine transaminase, aka SGPT
AST aspartate transaminase, aka SGOT
ALK alkaline phosphatase
Enzymes Are all enzymes normally found in liver tissue,Increased levels indicate damage to liver cells (Enzymes leak into the blood)
Bilirubin Increased levels produce jaundice (and icterus) in skin and other tissues,Direct bilirubin test,For conjugated bilirubin ,Liver Obstruction or disease
Indirect bilirubin test For unconjugated bilirubin ,Excessive hemolysis
Stool Cultures Fecal material is put on culture media to test for the presence of pathogenic organisms
Stool Guaiac aka Hemoccult test ,Test to detect presence of blood in feces ,Test for melena or occult blood,Colon cancer
Barium Enema aka lower GI series,Barium- contrast medium,Detects abnormalities in the lower GI Tract,X-rays of colon and rectum after rectal enema injection
Upper GI series Detects abnormalities in the upper GI Tract,Views of esophagus, stomach and small intestine,Barium is taken orally
Barium swallow just the esophagus
Cholangiography Look at bile vessels,Inject contrast into the bile ducts,Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography
CT/CAT Scan Cross-sectional or transverse ,View of GI tract, blood vessels, organs
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) Catheter injection through the mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum and then the bile duct,Backward injection of dye into bile and pancreatic ducts.
Abdominal Ultrasonography Sound waves produce images,Good for fluid filled structures
Radioactive (Liver Scan) Intravenous blood injection of radioactive material.,Picked up by liver cells,Scanner records uptake of material and produces an image.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (blanket word) Special fiber optic tube passed through the mouth or anus for visual exam,Can also remove tissue, etc.
Liver Biopsy Percutaneous insertion of needle into liver to remove tissue for microscopic exam
Nasogastric Intubation tube through the nose directly into the stomach,Used to remove gastric secretions and administer medications, food, and fluids.
Paracentesis aka Abdominocentesis ,Remove fluid from patient with ascites (peritoneal cavity) or for diagnostic procedures
Femal reproductive Functions Produce ova,Provide a place for growth of the embryo,Produce hormones for regulating menstruation and the development of female secondary sex characteristics
Gynecology Study of the female reproductive system
Obstetrics (literally means midwife) Medical specialty concerned with pregnancy and delivery of the fetus
Neonatology Study and treatment of the newborn (child)
Ovaries Almond-shaped organs in lower abdomen,Very small
Fallopian Tubes (aka uterine tubes, oviducts),Lead from each ovary to uterus
Uterus aka womb ,Muscular organ between urinary bladder and rectum,Normal position
Vagina Muscular tube leading from uterus to exterior of body,
Perineum Area between vaginal and rectal openings. Episiotomy (cutting vulva) often done to prevent a tear in the perineum
Bartholin’s glands Located on either side of vaginal opening, produce mucus secretions that lubricate the vagina
Clitoris Erectile tissue ,anterior to vaginal orifice,anterior to urethral meatus
Ovaries Held in place by ligaments,
Graafian Follicles Thousands of small sacs containing an ovum
Ovum Each month, a mature follicle ruptures releasing an ovum
Corpus luteum (yellow body) Develops when ruptured follicle fills with yellow, fatty material,secretes progesterone and estrogen
Fallopian tube/Uterine tube Extends laterally from uterus to ovary,ovum moves from ovary through tube toward uterus,May be fertilized within the Fallopian tubes
Uterus lined with mucus membrane
Endometrium Specialized epithelial membrane lining the uterus
Myometrium Middle muscular layer
Perimetrium/uterine serosa Outer layer
Cervix Neck,Narrow, lower portion
Vagina Tube leading from cervix to external opening
Breast mammary (milk-producing) glands in the glandular tissue,Composed of about 20 separate glands (lobes) with several lactiferous ducts which open on surface at mammary papilla ,
Breast Also lymph ducts draining to areas in armpit and chest allow spread of cancer,Breast tissue has cyclical changes during the menstrual cycle like the uterine endometrium
Menstrual Cycle Days 1-5 (Menstruation),Discharge of body fluid containing endometrial cells, glandular secretions and blood cells
Menstrual Cycle Days 6-12 (Post-Menses),FSH and LH secreted by pituitary gland stimulates production of mature Graafian follicle containing a mature ovum ,initial repair of uterine lining due to stimulation of estrogen from maturing Graafian follicle
Menstrual Cycle Days 13-14 ,Ovulation,Increased concentration of estrogen stimulates release of a surge of LH which causes rupture of a mature follicle,Released ovum begins passage through fallopian tubes,
Menstrual Cycle Days 15-28 ,Pre-Menses,Graafian follicle fills with yellow fluid and becomes corpus luteum which secretes estrogen and progesterone (endocrine),Hormones continue stimulating buildup of uterine lining for possible fertilization and pregnancy
When no fertilization/pregnancy occurs Corpus luteum stops secreting estrogen & progesterone which allows the endometrium to break down and slough off,Cause of PMS,The decreased hormone production “tells” the pituitary gland to begin secreting FSH
Birth Control Pills Maintain high levels of estrogen & progesterone which will decrease FSH and LH causing ovulation to not occur
hCG human chorionic gonadotropin
Hormonal Interaction of Pregnancy The high levels of hormones acts as “Negative Feedback” which tells the pituitary gland that FSH and LH are not needed,Therefore no ovulation occurs during pregnancy (typically)
Placenta Vascular organ ,forms in uterine wall ,derived from maternal endometrium and chorion
Chorion Outer membrane surrounding embryo
Amnion Inner membrane,holds amniotic fluid
Menopause Gradual ending of menstrual cycle resulting from normal aging of the ovaries
Estrogen Replacement Therapy Relieve uncomfortable symptoms of menopause,With small doses of progesterone, appears to protect women from osteoporosis,
Cervical Carcinoma Malignant tumor of cervix,One of most common cancers of women,Slow development from cervical dysplasia to carcinoma in situ (localized) to metastasis to lymph nodes, bladder, intestine, ureters
Cervicitis Inflammation of the cervix,Due to STI,infections resulting in ulcers, leukorrhea
Endometrial carcinoma malignant tumor of uterine lining,Main symptom,postmenopausal bleeding,Estrogen exposure
Endometriosis Endometrial tissue in abnormal locations - ovaries, pelvic peritoneum, small intestine, etc. Symptoms include dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, infertility, dyspareunia.
Ovarian Carcinoma Malignant tumor of the ovary,Generally metastasized before diagnosis ,few symptoms produced in early stages,Treatment-Oophorectomy,salpingectomy
CA-125 Tumor marker seen in the blood
Ovarian Cysts Collections of fluid within a sac in the ovary
Cystadenoma Lined with tumor cells,May become malignant
Cystadenocarcinoma See cystadenoma,But can metastasize
Dermoid Benign Teratomas – Monster,From immature eggs in the ovary,Strange assortment of tissue
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Inflammation and infection of organs in the pelvic region,Salpingitis often with no symptoms ,Bacterial infection increases risk of ectopic pregnancy, infertility, sterility ,STI component,Symptoms include bilateral lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge
LLQ and RLQ Carcinoma of the Breast,Malignant tumor arising in milk glands and ducts,
Lumpectomy Remove lump leaving rest of breast intact,Simple or total mastectomy Entire breast and some axillary lymph nodes are removed to detect metastasis
Modified Radical Mastectomy Removal of entire breast, axillary lymph nodes and some adjacent chest wall muscles
Ectopic Pregnancy Implantation of fertilized ova in a place other than the uterus,generally in oviducts (90%),Surgery or medication
Hydrocephalus Fluid accumulation due to circulation problems in the brain and spinal cord
Pyloric Stenosis Narrowing of sphincter between the stomach and duodenum,Requires surgical repair
Pap Smear Cells are evaluated microscopically for the presence of cervical/vaginal carcinoma
Pregnancy Test Detect beta-hCG subunit in urine or blood
Hysterosalpingography Image of uterus and fallopian tube after IV contrast material injection
Mammography Recommend baseline X-Ray and yearly after age 40
Ultrasound Recording of sound waves to create images
Aspiration Remove fluid, e.g. Breast, for evaluation of disease
Cauterization Destroy abnormal tissue with heat or chemicals by burning
Colposcopy Visual exam of vagina and cervix and usually a biopsy
Cryosurgery Destroy tissue using cold temperature,Liquid nitrogen
Dilation and Curettage (D & C) Widen cervical opening and scrape endometrium
Laparoscopy Visual examination of abdominal cavity
Amniocentesis Needle puncture of the amniotic sac,Cells removed for cytological and biochemical studies
Pelvimetry Measurement of mother’s pelvis to determine capacity for vaginal birth
Breast Most of breast is fibrous fatty tissue which provides structure to breast but also way for cancer to spread to skin and underlying pectoral muscles,
Nitrogen becomes a waste product Urea, creatinine, uric acid
Nitrogenous waste gets into the bloodstream Kidneys filter out the waste,Urine is formed,Also contains water, salts and acids,Out it goes
Wastes recycled from respiration & energy production Liver transforms nitrogen from protein into urea. Urea passes into blood stream.
Fluid Nitrogenous wastes and water eliminated through kidneys
Gases CO2 and H2O eliminated through lungs
Functions of the Renal System Remove wastes, urea,Maintain water and electrolyte balance, secretion & reabsorption),Kidney capillaries maintain proper balance by secreting some substances into the urine and absorbing others back in the bloodstream to be used by the body
Functions of the Renal System Acts as an endocrine organ by secreting
Renin Helps control blood pressure,Keeps blood moving through the kidney
Erythropoietin hormone that regulates RBC production
Vitamin D Required for absorption of calcium from the intestine,Secreted by the kidney
Kidney Retroperitoneal bean shaped organs,Typically have 2,
Cortex Outer region
Medulla Inner region
Hilum Blood vessels and nerves
Ureter muscular tubes,Typically have 2,Peristaltic movement of urine from kidney to bladder
Bladder Hollow muscular sac in pelvic cavity,Urine reservoir,Anatomy
Urethra Urine from bladder to outside of the body,Female
Expulsion of urine voiding,Aka urination or micturition
Meatus External opening of the urethra outside the body,Blood enter kidney via aorta through the R and L renal arteries at the hilum,Arterioles continue into the cortex of the kidney,Slow and steady,Where renin comes into play
Capillaries Glomerulus
Nephron combination of a glomerulus and a renal tubule
3 steps for kidney function 1 Filtration 2 Reabsorption 3 Secretion
Filtration Water, salts, sugar, nitrogenous wastes are allowed to leave the bloodstream via the glomeruli,Collection occurs in Bowman’s capsule
Renal tubule Attached to each Bowman capsule
Filtration Water, glucose, salt, urea, creatinine, uric acid (nitrogenous wastes),Leave bloodstream at the glomerulus & are collected in Bowman’s Capsule
Reabsorption As filtrate travels along the renal tubules, all the glucose, salts (Na+) & most of the water are taken back into the blood stream by the peritubular capillaries,Ensures that the body retains essential substances
Secretion To maintain electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3-) balance, some ions will travel from the peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule,Secreted from the bloodstream,opposite of reabsorption,Waste products must be removed as they are toxic to the body
Urine 95% water,5% urea, creatinine, salts, acids, drugs
Renal pelvis Basin located in the central kidney,Where collecting tubules lead,Narrows into the ureter
Ureter Carries urine to the urinary bladder
Bladder Storage unit for urine,Sphincters control movement to the urethra,Muscular rings
Urethra Urinary meatus and out
Glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the balls of capillaries in the kidney,Etiology often idiopathic,Can occur following a streptococcal infection,2 weeks,Symptoms include: backache, malaise, hypertension, albuminuria, hematuria, oliguria, renal failure,aka Bright’s disease
Nephrolithiasis aka kidney stones or renal calculi,Idiopathic ,Usually associated with an increase in blood calcium levels (parathyroid gland),Uric acid
Polycystic Kidney Multiple fluid filled sacs within and on the kidney,aka PKD,Hereditary,Kidney can weigh 20X normal weight,Can cause nephromegaly, UTI, hypertension, uremia, hematuria
Pyelonephritis Bacterial inflammation of renal pelvis and renal medulla,mainly in women,Symptoms: frequency, dysuria, pyuria, bacteriuria, proteinuria, hematuria
Renal cell carcinoma aka hypernephroma ,Malignant tumor of kidney,Often metastasizes to bone and lungs,hematuria
Renal Failure Failure of the kidney to excrete wastes and maintain its filtration function,Anuria/Oliguria result in increased nitrogenous wastes (Azotemia),Fatal if untreated
Diabetes mellitus Etiology - Inadequate secretion or improper utilization of insulin Symptoms– hyperglycemia, glycosuria, polyuria, polydipsia
BUN: blood urea nitrogen Measures the amount of urea (waste) in the blood Increased when the kidney is diseased or failsLeads to uremia, unconsciousness, death
Laboratory Tests Creatinine and creatinine clearance,Measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney,Blood levels are compared to urine levels
CT Scans X-ray image showing a detailed cross section view of organs and tissues Kidneys: transverse views
Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) Contrast medium injected in a vein, is filtered from the kidney into the urine, Determines renal function and shows cysts, tumors, stones, etc.
Renal Angiography IV injection of contrast medium to visualize renal blood vessels.
Ultrasonography Process of imaging urinary tract structures using high frequency sound waves
Radioactive (radioisotope studies) Image of the kidney after injecting IV radioisotope into the blood Radioisotope concentrated in the kidney
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnetic field and radio waves produce an image in all three planes of the body,A painless diagnostic technique,
MRI Advantages Detecting edema in the brain,Image hidden body parts,Pituitary gland, spinal cord, heart, brain,Detect tumors in the chest and abdomen,Visualize the cardiovascular system,Outpatient procedure,No radiation or contrast dye
Cystoscopy Direct visual examination of urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope)Hollow metal tube - urinary meatus- urethra bladder,Add a catheter Urine out, contrast material in
Dialysis Process of separating nitrogenous waste material from the blood when the kidneys no longer function
Hemodialysis Waste removed from patient’s blood by passing blood through an artificial kidney machine.
Peritoneal Dialysis Special fluid is put into the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity via catheter to remove wastes
Extra corporeal shock wave (aka lithotripsy) External shock waves crush stones in the urinary tract via endoscopy,Involves pain meds,Patient passes the broken stones via urinary excretion
Renal Biopsy Removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examination by a pathologist
Renal transplantation Surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to a recipient,Requires tissue matching,Requires immunosuppressive drugs to reduce rejection of transplanted kidney
Urinary Catheterization Pass flexible tube into urethra to Drain urine from bladder,Inflate bladder,Irrigate bladder,A Foley cath is indwelling
ectasis,ectasia stretching,dilation,widening
emesis vomiting
lysis destruction
pepsia digestion
phagia eating swallowing
plasty surgical repair
ptosis droop,sag,protrude
ptysis spitting
rrhage,rrhagia bursting forth(of blood)
rrhaphy suture
rrhea flow discharge
spasm sudden involuntary contraction of muscles
stasis to stop,control
stenosis tightening,stricture,narrowing
tresia opening
cali/o,calic/o calyx
cyst/o urinary bladder
glomerul/o glomerulus
meat/o meatus
meatus opening or canal
glomerus tiny ball of capillaries in the cortex of the kidney
pyel/o renal pelvis
trigon/o trigone(region of the bladder)
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
vesic/o urinary bladder
albumin/o albumin(protein in the blood)
azot/o nitrogen
bacteri/o bacteria
dips/o thirst
ket/o keton/o ketone bodies
lith/o stone
noct/o night
olig/o scanty
poietin substance that forms
py/o pus
tripsy to crush
ur/o urine
urin/o urine
uria urination,urine condition
amni/o amnion
cervic/o cervix,neck
chori/o chorion/o chorion
colp/o vagina
culd/o cul de sac
episi/o vulva
galact/o milk
gynec/o woman
hyster/o uterus,womb
lact/o milk
mamm/o breast
mast/o breast
men/o menses, menstration
metr/o metri/o uterus
my/o myom/o muscle muscle tumor
nat/i birth
obstetr/o pregnancy and childbirth
o/o egg
oophor/o ovary
ov/o egg
ovul/o egg
ovari/o ovary
perine/o perneum
phor/o to bear
salping/o fallopian tubes
uter/o uterus
vagin/o vagina
vulv/o vulva
arche beginning
cyesis birth
gravida pregnant
parous bearing bring forth
rrhea discharge
salphinx uterine tube
tocia labor birth
version act of turning
dys painful
endo-within with in
in in
intra within
multi many
nulli no not none
pre before
primi first
retro backwards
Chorion placenta
Created by: kallipso



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