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Hormones

Hormones, their glands, and their targets

QuestionAnswer
What hormones are released from the hypothalamus? Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), Dopamine, Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), somatostatin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates thyroid stimulating hormone release in the anterior pituitary gland
Dopamine inhibit prolactin release from the anterior pituitary
Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) stimulate growth hormone release from anterior pituitary
Somatostatin inhibits GH and TSH release from the anterior pituitary; also inhibits release of insulin in pancreas
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates FSH and LH release in anterior pituitary
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates ACTH release from anterior pituitary
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary, increase water permeability/promotes water reabsorption in kidneys
What are the hormones of the anterior pituitary? Growth Hormone (GH), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
What are the hormones of the posterior pituitary? Antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin
Growth hormone (GH) affects whole body, stimulates growth and cell reproduction
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates release of T3 and T4 from thyroid gland
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates corticosteroids (cortisol, glucocorticoid and mineralcorticoid), and androgen synthesis and release from adrenocortical cells
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in females: sitmulates maturation of ovarian follicles in ovary. In males: stimulates maturation of seminiferous tubules, spermatogenesis, and production of androgen-binding protein form testes
Luteinizing hormone (LH) in females: stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum. In males: stimulates testosterone synthesis
Prolactin (PRL) stimulates milk synthesis and release from mammary glands with oxytocin
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) stimulates melanin synthesis and release from melanocytes in skin/hair
Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions and lactation in niples
What are the hormones of the thyroid? triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
Triiodothyronine (T3) stimulates oxygen and energy production (through RNA polymerase stimulation), which increases metabolic rate and protein synthesis
Thyroxine (T4) less active version of T3
Calcitonin stimulates osteoblasts for bone construction; inhibits the release of calcium from the bone and reducing overall calcium blood levels
What are the hormones of the pancreas? Insulin (Beta islets), glucagon (alpha islets), somatostatin (sigma islets [?]), and pancreatic polypeptide
insulin causes intake of glucose from the blood and synthesizes triglycerides in adipocytes reducing blood glucose levels
glucagon causes glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver causing an increase in blood glucose levels
pancreatic polypeptide self regulates the pancreas
What are the parts of the adrenal gland? Adrenal Cortex and adrenal medulla
What are the layers of the adrenal cortex? from outside to inside: zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis
what are the hormones released from the adrenal cortex? corticoids: glucocorticoids (cortisol), mineralcorticoids (aldosterone), androgens
glucocorticoids (Cortisol) stimulates gluconeogenesis and fat break down, but inhibits protein synthesis and metabolic rate
mineralcorticoids (Aldosterone) stimulates sodium reabsorption in kidneys which increase water reabsorption. Also stimulates release of potassium and hydrogen ions into nephron of the kidneys
androgens (DHEA and testosterone for example) in males: small effect similar to testosterone released from the testes. In females: masculinizing effects
what are the hormones of the adrenal medulla? epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, enkephalin
epinephrine affects whole body for fight response
norepinephrine affects whole body for rest/flight response
enkephalin regulates pain throughout whole body
what are the hormones of the parathyroid? parathyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates calcium release and phosphate release and increases blood calcium land phosphate levels; stimulates break down of bone to release calcium, stimulates activation of vitamin D production in kidneys
Created by: drubin676