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Anatomy Chp 13

Stack #199833

Brainstem connects spinal cord to brain; integration of reflexes necessary for survival
Cerebellum: involved in control of locomotion, balance, posture. the Ability to walk and talk is controlled here. Eye Movement, and plan and practice movements. Located at the level of the pons posterior to the brain stem. Communicates with other parts of the brain.
Cerebrum: conscious thought, control
Brainstem: Medulla Oblongata Most inferior part Continuous with spinal cord; has both ascending and descending nerve tracts
Brainstem: Medulla Oblongata Discrete nuclei in internal gray matter Regulates: heart rate, blood vessel diameter, respiration, swallowing, vomiting, hiccupping, coughing, and sneezing
Pyramids: descending nerve tracts on the anterior surface. Inferiorly fibers decussate; thus each half of the brain controls the opposite half of the body
Olives: rounded; protrude from anterior surface. Nuclei within help regulate balance, coordination, modulation of sound from inner ear
Brainstem: Pons Fiber tracts: ascending and descending Nuclei, involved in sleep and respiration.
Brainstem: Midbrain mesencephalon
Brainstem: Midbrain (Tectum) four nuclei that form mounds on dorsal surface of midbrain. Corpora quadrigemina
Reticular Formation AKA Reticular Activating System Group of nuclei scattered throughout brainstem Controls cyclic activities such as sleep-wake cycle
Cerebellum Attached to brainstem posterior to pons
Cerebellar peduncles: There are 3. What do they associated with? Fiber tracts that communicate with other parts of brain. Superior->Midbrain Middle-> Pons, Inferior-> Medulla oblongata.
Diencephalon Located between brainstem and cerebrum and broken down into the thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, and the epithalamus.
Corpora Quadrigemina Located in the tectum of the midbrain. 2 superior colliculi and 2 inferior colliculi
Superior colliculi Control the visual reflexes that are inervated by the midbrain
Inferior Colliculi Control Auditory control in the midbrain
(Thalamus) Surrounded by third ventricle and involed mainly in relaying sensory and motor stimuli. Auditory, mood, taste, vision, etc. except olfaction.
Subthalamus( focus on components of it and what their functions are.) Involved in controlling motor function Contains subthalamic nuclei, parts of red nuclei(unconcious control of movement) and substantia nigra(involved in ordered movment-parkinsons).
Epithalamus-Pineal gland may influence sleepiness, helps regulate biological clock, may play a role in onset of puberty
Epithalamus-Habenular nucleus emotional and visceral responses to odors
Central sulcus: between the precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex) and postcentral gyrus (primary somatic sensory cortex)
Frontal lobe: voluntary motor function, motivation, aggression, sense of smell, mood
Parietal lobe: reception and evaluation of sensory information except smell, hearing, and vision
Occipital lobe: reception and integration of visual input
Temporal lobe: reception and evaluation for smell and hearing; memory, abstract thought, judgment. Insula is within.
Association fibers: connections within the same hemisphere of the cerebral cortex
Commissural fibers: connect one hemisphere of the cerebrum to the other
Projection fibers: tracts between the cerebrum and other parts of the brain and spinal cord
Basal Nuclei Found in the cerebrum, diencephalon, and midbrain. Motor function control. Very important in organizing voluntary actions and thus they are important in motor control
Limbic System Part of cerebrum and diencephalon,Basic survival functions such as memory, reproduction, nutrition,Emotions
Fourth ventricle: associated with pons and medulla oblongata.Connected to third ventricle by the cerebral aqueduct, continuous with the spinal cord, and connected to the subarachnoid space by the lateral and medial apertures
Lateral ventricles: within cerebral hemispheres; separated by septa pellucida
Third ventricle: within diencephalon
Interventricular foramina join lateral ventricles with third
Choroid plexuses produce CSF which fills ventricles and other parts of brain and spinal cord Composed of ependymal cells, their support tissue, and associated blood vessels
Blood Supply to the brain Receives blood through arteries: internal carotids and vertebral arteries. The vertebral arteries join to form the basilar artery. Carotids plus basilar form the cerebral arterial circle (Circle of Willis). brain requires 15-20% of blood flow constantly.
Thalamus Sensory relay center of the brain
Fourth ventricle Ventricle that is Associated with the pons and the medulla oblongata.
Cerebral aqueduct connects the third and fourth ventricle. Is continuous with the spinal cord and connected to the subarachnoid space the lateral and medial apertures.
Olfactory Nerve: CN1 SENSORY-Smell does not synapse in the thalamus goes straight to the cerebral cortex
Optic Nerve: CN2 Sensory- Vision
Oculomotor Nerve: CN3 Involved in motor(4 muscles)& Proprioception and Parasympathetic (pupil dialation & accomodation[ciliary muscles])
Trochlear Nerve: CN 4 Motor to superior oblique and proprioception.
Trigeminal Nerve branches: CN5 Ophthalmic branch, Maxillary Branch, Mandibular branch
Functional organization of the Trigeminal nerve: Sensory (face,scalp, mouth(palate etc.) ANT 2/3 of tongue. Motor/proprioception- Muscles of mastication. para and sympathetic innervations
Abducent nerve: CN6 Motor/ proprioception to the lateral rectus.
Facial Nerve: CN7 Sense of taste to the Ant 2/3 of tongue, motor/proprioception to the muscles of facial expression and PS to glands (Sub mandib and sub lingual, lacrimal etc.
Vestibulocochlear Nerve: CN 8 Sensory- Hearing and balance.
Glossopharyngeal Nerve: CN9 Taste to the Post 1/3 of tongue. sensory to pharynx, etc. Motor to the pharyngeal muscle plus proprioception. PS to the parotid salivary gland
Vagus Nerve: Cn 10 Sensroy to core starting with inferior pharynx, Motor to core, and PS to visceral organs.
Accessory Nerve: CN 11 motor to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
Hypoglossal Nerve : CN 12 motor to intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles and proprioception.
If you are to ake a cut that would seperate the brain from the brain stem, between what two structures would you cut? Cut between the Diencephalon and the Midbrain. The Diencephalon is still part of the brain.
Important center for heart rate, bp, respiration, swallowing, coughing, and vommiting, are located in the... Medulla Oblongata.
Important respiratory centers are located in which part of the brain? the pons and the Medulla oblongata.
The cerebral peduncles are major descending motor pathways, located in the? Midbrain.
the cerebellum communicates with other regions of the CNS through the...? cerebella peduncles.
The major relay station for sensory input that projects to the cerebral cortex is the...? thalamus
Mammilary bodies in the hypothalamus are involed in...? Olfactory reflexes and emotional response to odors.
Why are the Habenular nucleus in the epithalamus and the mammilary bodies in the hypothalamus simialr? both provide emotional responses to odors.
The part of the diencephalon that is directly connected to the pituitary is the ...? Hypothalamus.
The grooves on the surface of the cerebrum are called...? Sulci
the primary somatic sensory cortex is located in which portion of the cerebral cortex? the Postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex.
Which cerebral lobe is involved in voluntary motor function, motivation, aggression, sense of smell and mood? The Frontal lobe.
Where are basal nuclei located? The inferior cerebrum, diencephalon, and the midbrain.
What is the most superficial layer of the meninges which is characteristically thick and tough? the Dura matter.
The cranial nerve that is involved in chewing food is the? trigeminal nerve.
the Cn involved in focusing the eye is the ? Occulomotor
The CN involved in moving the tongue is the? Hypoglossal
The CN involved in feeling a toothache is the? Trigeminal
List the structures that make up the brain stem from superior to inferior... Midbrain,Pons, and the medulla oblongata.
Longitudinal Fissure Seperates two hemispheres
Lateral fissure seperates frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobe
Central sulcus seperates frontal lobe from parietal lobe
Gyri folds
Sulci depressions
Hippocampus Associated with the limbic system- involved in alzheimers
Subdural space located b/t dura and arachnoid and filled with serous fluid
Subarachnoid space located b/t the arachnoid and pia layer and filled with CSF.Also, contains web like strands, and blood vessels.
Respiration centers are located in what two structures of the brain stem? Medulla and the Pons
What do the rednuclei do? aid in unconcious regulation and coordination of motor activities.
What is the function of the substantia nigra? it is involved in maintaining muscle tone and in coordinating movements."Parkinsons"
Purkinje Cells Receive over 200,000 synapse and are inhibitory only to the cerebella cortex. The cerebellar cortex has 10^12 more neruons that the cerbral cortex.
hypothalamus functions from chart autonomic, endocrine, muscle control, temperature control, regulation of food and water intake, emotions, regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, sexual development and behavior.
cerebral medualla The cerrbal medullais white matter b/t the cortex and nuclei. The white matter consists of Commissural fibers, projections fibers, and association fibers.
Created by: rokasaki