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integumentary system

what makes up the integumentary system? 1. skin 2. hair 3. nails 4. oil and sweat glands 5. sense receptors
what are the 3 parts of the cutaneous membrane? 1. epidermis 2. dermis 3. subcutaneous layer( hypodermis)
what in the subcutaneous layer detects pressure? lamellated corpuscles
what types of epithelium make up the epidermis? keratinized stratified squamous
what are the four cell types in the epidermis? 1. keratinocytes 2. melanocytes 3. intraepidermal macrophages 4. tactile epithelial cells
hornlike cells? produce keratin and lamellar granules? keratinocytes
black cells? produce melanin? cluster? melanocytes
immune response against skin invaders? intraepidermal macrophages
landerhans cells intraepidermal macrophages
merkel cells tactile epithelial
touch sensations? tactile disc? tactile epithelial
what are the two types of epidermis? thin (hairy) thick (hairless)
layers of the epidermal strata? (thin to thick) deep to superficial STRATUM: basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneum, lucidum
stratum germinativum? melanocytes are here? cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes? germ cells? stratum basale
when stratumbasale and its germ cells are destroyed, new skin cells cannot grow? skin graft
pigment-producing cells of the epidermis are located in which layer? stratum basale
which layer has stem cells that undergo cell division to continually produce new keratinocytes? stratum basale
thorn-like projections are bundles of intermediate filament where they inserted into desmosomes? stratum spinosum
which layer of the epidermis contains intraepidermal macrophages? stratum spinosum
transition layer? apoptosis? lamella granules? water repellant and sealant? stratum granulosum
clear layer? only in thick skin? hairless layers? stratum lucidum
surface? snake scales? callus? stratum corneum
transition between metabolically active cells of lower layers and the dead layers of keratinocytes of the upper layers? granulosum
what happen as cells push to the surface? get more keratin
what determines rate of growth and shedding? cell division in stratum basale
abnormal kertain? flaky, silvery at skin surface? psoriasis
dense irregular connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers dermis
papillary (thin) and reticular (thick) dermis
finger-like projections? increase surface are? dermal papillae
free nerve endings, corpuscles of touch, capillary loops? superficial portion? papillary region of dermis
sebaceous and sudorifierous glands? extensibility and elasticity? reticular region of dermis
ridges and grooves that look like loops to the naked eye epidermal ridges
sebaceous gland open to epidermis prints
increase surface area epidermis for traction and tactile( touch) sensitivity fingerprints and footprints
internal scarring (stretch marks) striae
predominate direction of underlying collagen fibers lines of cleavage
aerolar CT with thin collagen and elastic fibers papillary region of dermis
deeper portion of dermis reticular region of dermis
produced by melanocytes in the stratum basale melanin
most common form of biological melanin eumelanin
benzothiazine units responsible for red hair and freckles pheomelanin
precursor to vitamin A carotene
inherited inability to produce melanin albinism
partial or complete loss of melanocytes from patches of skin vitiligo
lack of oxygen cyanotic
build up of bilirubin due to liver disease jaundiced
heat, exposure, infection erythematous
shock or anemia pallor
oil glands sebaceous
oily? prevents evaporation? keep skin soft? inhibit bacteria? sebum
sweat glands suboriferous
secrete outward to body surface (forehead, palms, soles of feet) eccrine sweat glands
regulation of body temp through perspiration thermoregulation
Emotional sweating, sexual activities "separated from" apocrine sweat glands
modified sweat in external ear ceruminous glands
earwax cerumen
protection? counter pressure? groom nails
transparent nail body with lunula free edge
embedded in fold of skin nail root
cuticle of nail eponychium
growth of nail occurs here nail matrix
vasodilation and vasoconstriction thermoregulation (skin)
excrete bactericidal chemical, acidic pH of perspiration, protect from abrasion, microbes, heat protection (skin)
touch, pressure, vibration, tickling, warmth, coolness – impending tissue damage warning system cutaneous sensations (skin)
water evaporation removes heat Excretion and absorption
precursor molecule in skin must be activated by UV sunlight; enzymes then change it to calcitriol Synthesis of vitamin D
abrasion and minor burns epidermal wound healing
phase 1 of deep wound healing inflammatory phase- clot, call for help
phase 2 of deep wound healing migratory-scab, epithelial cells migrate, scar tissue. Granulation tissue
phase 3 of deep wound healing proliferative- extensive growth, collagen randomly deposited by fibroblasts
phase 4 of deep wound healing maturation- scab sloughs off
raised scar that often forms after deep wound healing fibrosis
remain in boundaires of original wound hypertrophic scar
extend beyond boundaries into surrounding tissues keloid scar
epidermis derived from ectoderm embryonic inte. system
dermis arises from mesoderm embryonic inte. system
Mesoderm gives rise to loosely organized embryonic CT mesenchyme
constant defiency of blood flow to tissues( decubitus) pressure ulcers
Created by: mytoia05