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A&P- CH.6

Bones and Skeletal tissues

Hypertrophic zone older chondrocytes (cartilage cells) enlarge
Calcification zone matrix calcifies; cartilage cells die; matrix begins deteriorating; blood vessels invade cavity
Ossification zone new bone forms
Metaphysis in a growing bone, the region that contains the epiphyseal plate
Proliferation zone cartilage cells undergo mitosis
Osteogenic cells mitotically active stem cells found in the membranous periosteum and endosteum
Thyroid hormone a hormone that modulates the activity of growth hormone, ensuring proper bone formation
Hydroxyapatite mineral salts; largely calcium phosphates present as tiny, tightly packed, needlelike crystals in and around collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix
Perichondrium fibrous, connective-tissue membrane covering the external surface of cartilaginous structures
Osteomalacia disorder in which bones are inadequately mineralized; soft bones
Periosteum double layered connective tissue that covers and nourishes the bone
Osteon system of interconnecting canals in the microscopic structure of adult compact bone; unit of bone; also called Haversian system
Cartilage one of the four types of connective tissue; avascular and not innervated
Sesamoid bones short bones embedded in tendons, variable in size and number, many of which influence the action of muscles; largest is the patella
Central (Haversian) canal the canal in the center of each osteon that contains minute blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the needs of osteocytes
Endochondral ossification embryonic formation of bone by the replacement of calcified cartilage; most skeletal bones are formed by this process.
Trabeculae strut or thin plate of bone in spongy bone
Interstitial lamellae incomplete lamellae that lie between intact osteons, filling gaps between formed osteons, or representing the remnants of an osteon that has been cut through by bone remodeling
Osteoporosis decreased density and strength of bone resulting from a gradual decrease in rate of bone formation
Osteocyte mature bone cell
Hyaline cartilage the most abundant cartilage type in the body; provides firm support with some pliability; costal, laryngeal, articular, nasal
Endochondral bone bone formed by using hyaline cartilage structures as models for ossification.
Epiphyseal plate plate of hyaline cartilage at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphysis that provides for growth in length of long bone
Perforating canals canals that run at right angles to the long axis of the bone, connecting the vascular and nerve supplies of the periosteum to those of the central and medullary cavity. (Volkmann's canals)
Fibrocartilage the most comprehensible type of cartilage; resistant to stretch. Forms intervertebral discs and minisci.
Osteogenesis the process of bone formation; also called ossification
Diploe the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
Elastic cartilage cartilage with abundant elastic fibers; external ear & epiglottis
Medullary cavity central cavity of a long bone. Contains yellow or red marrow.
Spongy bone internal layer of skeletal bone; also called cancellous bone
Bone resorption the removal of osseous tissue; part of the continuous bone remodeling process.
Osteoclasts large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix
Appositional growth cells secrete matrix on outside of existing cartilage
Lamella a layer, such as of bone matrix in an osteon of compact bone
Endosteum connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surfaces.
Lacuna a small space, cavity, or depression; lacunae in bone or cartilage are occupied by cells
Osteoid unmineralized bone matrix
Appendicular relating to the limbs and girdles
Articulation the junction of two or more bones
Fossa a depression, often an articular surface
Bone remodeling process involving bone formation and destruction in response to hormonal and mechanical factors.
Osteoblasts bone forming cells
Epiphysis ends of long bones, attached to the shaft
Diaphysis tubular shaft of long bone
Foramen hole or opening in a bone or between body cavities
Created by: cacbaz



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