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gastrointestinal review

TermDefinition
what are rugae? folds in the stomach, secrete hydrochloric acid and enzymes
what are the accessory organs of the GI system? liver, gallbladder, pancreas
what are the four divisions of the colon? ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
what are the functions of the liver? produces bile, removes glucose (sugar) from the blood, stores vitamins B12, A, D, E and K, destroys or transforms toxic products
what are the three main components of the large intestine? cecum, colon, rectum
what are the three main parts of the stomach? fundus, body, pylorus
what are the two structures that form the roof of the mouth? hard palate, soft palate
what is the medical term for mouth? oral cavity
what is another name for the GI tract? alimentary canal
what are villi? microscopic finger-like projections
what does peristalsis occur? from the pharynx to the anus (the entire GI tract)
what is digestion completed? small intestine
what is a volvulus? a life-threatening obstruction in which the bowel twists on itself
what are hemorrhoids? enlarged veins in the mucuosa membrane of the anal canal
what causes hepatitis A? ingestion of contaminated food, water, or milk
what is diverticulosis? small blister-like pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine
what is ulcerative colitis? chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum
where are ulcers commonly found? stomach, duodenum
what do inguinal hernias develop? in the groin where the abdominal folds of the flesh meet the thighs
what large intestine disorder is associated with a higher risk of colon cancer? ulcerative colitis
ulcer a lesion of the skin or mucous or membrane which frequently develops in the duodenum or stomach
occult blood a test in which stool samples are collected to determine gastrointestinal bleeding
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
hernia abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through the structures that normally contain it
deglutition act of swallowing
gallbladder an organ below the liver which stores and empties bile through its ducts into the small intestine
pancreas an organ which uses ducts to provide exocrine secretions to the duodenum to aid in digestion
reguruitation backward flowing, as in the rectum of solids of fluids to the mouth from the stomach
mastication chewing
fecalith fecal concretion
cecum first 2-3" of the large intestine
ascending colon first portion of the colon, extending from the lower border of the liver
cholelithiasis formation of gallstones
flatus gas in the GI tract
ulterative colitis inflammation and ulceration of the innermost lining of the colon
diverticulitis inflammation of a sec-like bulge that may develop in the wall of the large intestine
stomatits inflammation of the mouth of the stomach
anorexia lack of loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
rectum last portion of the GI tract
ileum lower division of the small intestine
serum bilirubin measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
halitosis offensive, or bad breath
proctologist one who specializes in diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus
melena passage of dark-coloured, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
stratorrhea passage of fat in large amounts in the feces
celiac pertaining to the abdomen
buccal pertaining to the cheek
lithotripsy procedure for crushing a stone
erucation producing gas from the stomach
perstalsis progressive, wavelike movement
lower gastrointestinal series UGIS radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine
lower gastrointestinal series BE radiographic examination of the rectum and colon
cholecystogram radiographic record of the gallbladder
borborygmus rumbling or gurgling noises that are aurible at a distance
cirrhosis scarring and dysfunction of the liver
jejunum second division of the small intestine
transverse colon second portion of the colon that passes horizontally acrpss the abdomen toward the spleen
obstipation severe constipation
pyloric stenosis structure or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter
enterostomy surgical formation of an opening from the small intestine thorough the abdomen wall
ileostomy surgical formation of an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall
anastomosis surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
cheiloplasty surgical repair of the lip
aerophagia swallowing air
liver the largest glandular organ
diarrhea the passage of unformed watery bowel movements
ingest to eat
hematesis vomiting of blood
malabsorption when nutrients are digested but are not taken in by the intestinal tissues
oral leukoplakia white patches that form on the tongue, lips, or cheek
Ba barium
BE barium enema
BM bowel movement
BMI body mass index
CF cystic fibrosis
CT computed tomography
EGD esophagogastroduodenoscopy
GB gallbladder
GERD
GI gastrointestinal
HBV hepatitis B virus
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
LFT liver function test
PE physical examintation
PMH past medical history
PUD peptic ulcer disease
R/O rule out
RGB Roux-En-Y gastric bypass
STAT immediately
Created by: lexieeesmith
 

 



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