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A&P Chapter 5

Tri - Rivers School of Practical Nursing

Epidermis *stratified squamous epitheilum *normal flora
What is normal flora? normal bacteria
What are the two layers of the epidermis? *stratum corneum *stratum germinativum
Stratum Corneum *outermost layer *many layers of dead cells *keratin is left *"waterproof" *barrier to microrganisms
What makes the stratum corneum almost waterproof? keratin
Stratum Germinativum *innermost layer *mitosis takes place here *cells have form of cholesterol *has keratin - alive
Where is cholesterol produced? the liver
What is cholesterol involved in the production of? Vit. D
What are the 4 cells of the epidermis? keratinocytes, merkle cells, langerhan cells, melanocytes
Keratinocytes specialized - produce keratin
Merkel cells (discs) Sensory receptor - touch
Langerhan cells immunity
Melanocytes produce melanin - color (pigmentation)
Dermis *fibrous connective tissue (irregular) *papillary layer *hair / nail follicles *receptors *glands *arterioles
What is papillary layer? top layer of dermis, has capillaries
Structure of hair follicles *root: mitosis takes place *produces keratin & melanin *arrector pili
What is the arrector pili? muscle, causes goosebumps
Function of hair follicles produces keratin and die, hair itself protects
Structure of nail follicles root is site of mitosis
Function of nail follicles Produces keratin& die, protects end of fingers and toes from mechanical injury
What are the two types of receptors in the dermis? pain: heat/cold pressure/touch
Free or encapsulated nerve ending? Pain - heat/cold free
Free or encapsulated nerve ending? Pressure/Touch encapsulated
Glands in the dermis sebaceous, ceremonious, apocrine, eccrine
Sebaceous gland oil - sebum
Functions of sebaceous gland keep things moist, water barrier, protection
Ceremonious gland ear wax
Apocrine glands underarm,genitals *secretions are thicker
Eccrine glands forehead, soles of feet, palms of hands *thin / watery secretions
Arterioles & capillaries supplies O2, removes waste, helps with heat
vasodialation opens up veins bp: lower temp: lower
vasoconstriction tightens veins bp: higher temp: higher
What are the two layers of the skin? dermis, epidermis
The stratum corneum is the....? top layer
Where does mitosis take place? Stratum germinativuum, hair roots, nail roots
The dermis is made of fibrous connective tissues and contains ___________ nerve endings, glands, capillaries, collagen, elastin
Functions of the epidermis prevent H2O loss, mitosis, production of melanin, protection
Functions of the dermis contains capillaries, insulation, detect changes, produce sebum, produce cerumen, dialate / constrict, converts cholesterol to vit. D
What are the proteins of the epidermis and dermis? keratin, melanin, collagen, elastin
What protein gives hair its color? melanin
Subcutaneous tissue Superficial fascia hypodermis connective membrane *areolar / adipose *WBC *Mast Cells *under dermis *greatest blood supply
Mast Cells triggers inflammation
first degree "superficial" burn *superficial epidermis *painful *no blisters *appears red
second degree "partial thickness" burn *deeper layers of epidermis *painful *blisters
third degree "full thickness" burn *entire epidermis *may extend to dermis / subcutaneous tissue *may not be painful at first *subject to infection and dehydration
Basal cell carcinoma *originates in cells at base of epidermis *common on upper face *slow growing *less likely to metastasize
Squamous cell carcinoma *slow growing *will metastasize *lesions begin as painless, hard raised nodules *common on scalp and ears
Malignant melanoma *very aggressive *beings in melanocytes *metastasizes rapidly *can be all over *ABCD rule
What does the A in the abcd rule stand for? asymmetry (different on sides)
What does the B in the abcd rule stand for? border (not round)
What does the C in the abcd rule stand for? coloration (heavy to light, light to heavy pigmentation)
What does the D in the abcd rule stand for? diameter (more than 6mm)
At what mm can a lesion possibly be skin cancer? anything more than 6 mm
Nathan injured the soft tissues around his ankle, what tissue type is involved? fibrous connective tissue
Nathan also cut his arm, and requires 5 stitches, what membrane did they go through? cutaneous
Splinter that wasn't bleeding - what layers did it go through? epidermis only
Created by: aepnkbird



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