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Chapter 9

Dense regular connective tissue holds together the ends of bones and bone parts; no joint cavity classifies which type of joint? Fibrous
Pad of cartilage is wedged between the end of bones; no joint cavity classifieds what type of joint? Cartilaginous
What type of joint classifications are at the ends of bones covered with articular cartilage; joint cavity separates the articulating bones; joint enclosed by an articular capsule, lined by a synovial membrane; contains synovial fluid Synovial
Immobile joint Synartrosis
Slightly mobile joint Amphiarthrosis
Freely mobile joint Diarthrosis
Fibrous, synarthrosis joints Gomphosis and Suture
Fibrous, Amphiarthrosis joint Syndesmosis
Cartilaginous, synarthrosis joint Synchondrosis
Cartilaginous, amphiarthrosis joint Symphysis
Synovial, Diarthrosis, Uniaxial joints Plane joint, hinge joint, and pivot joint
Synovial, Diarthrosis, Biaxial joints Condylar joint and Saddle joint
Synovial, Diarthrosis, Multiaxial (triaxial) joint Ball-and-socket joint
Gomphosis are found... Periodontal membranes hold tooth to bony jaw, tooth to jaw
Sutures are found... Connects skull bones
Syndesmoses are found... articulation between radius and ulna and between tibia and fibula
Synchondroses are found... hyaline cartilage between bones, epiphyseal plates in growing bones; and costochondral joints.
Symphyses are found... Pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs
A double-layered capsule articular capsule
outer layer of the articular capsule fibrous layer
Inner layer of articular capsule synovial membrane
Cartilage that reduces friction in the joint during movement, acts as a spongy cushion to absorb compression and prevents damage to the articulating ends of the bones. Articular Cartilage
A space that contains a small amount of synovial fluid, permits separation of articulating bones. Joint cavity
composed of secretions from synovial membrane cells and a filtrate from blood plasma Synovial fluid
3 functions of Synovial fluid 1. Lubricates articular cartilage on articulation bones. 2. Nourishes the articular cartilage's chondrocytes. 3. Acts as a shack absorber distributing stresses and force evenly.
Connect one bone to another and strengthen and reinforce most synovial joints. Ligaments
a fibrous, sac-like structure that contains synovial fluid and is lined by a synovial membrane, designes to alleciate friction from body movement Bursae
Elongated bursa that wraps around tendons where there may be excessive friction. Tendon Sheath
Flattened or slightly curved faces slide across one another in intercarpal and intertarsal joints. Planar joint
Concex feature of one bone fits into concave depression of another bone found in elbow, knee, and IP joints. hinge joint
Rounded surface that fits into a ring formed by a ligament and another bone, found in atlantoaxial joints. Pivot joint
Oval articular surface on one bone closely interfaces with a depressed oval surface on another bone, found in MP joints. Condylar joint
Saddle-shaped articular surface on one bone closely interfaces with a saddle-shapped surface on another bone. Articulation between carpal and first metacarpal bone. Saddle joint
round head of one bone rests within cup-shaped depression in another bone, found in glenohumeral and hip joints Ball-and-socket joint
The angle between articulating bones decreases Flexion
The angle between articulating bones increases extension
Extension movement continues past the anatomic position Hyperextension
The vertebral column moves (bends) in a lateral direction along a coronal plane. Lateral flexion
Movement of a bone away from the midline. Abduction
Movement of a bone toward the midline Adduction
A continuous movement that combines flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction in succession; the distal end of the limb or digit moves in a circle Circumduction
Rotation of the forearm where the palm is turned posteriorly Pronation
Rotation of the forearm in which the palm is turned anteriorly Supination
Movement of a body part inferiorly Depression
Movement of a body part superiorly Elevation
Ankle joint movement where the dorsum of the foot in brought closer to the anterior surface of the leg Dorsiflexion
Ankle joint movement wherby the sole of the foot is brought toward the posterior surface of the leg Plantar flexion
Twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole medially or inward Inversion
Twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole laterally or outward Eversion
Anterior movement of a body part from anatomic position Protraction
Posterior movement of a body part from anatomic position Retraction
Special movement of the thumb across the palm toward the fingers to permit grasping and holding of an object Opposition
Ligament that runs from the femur to the fibula and prevents the leg from moving too far medially relative to the thigh. Fibular collateral ligament
Ligament that runs from the femur to the tibia, prevents hyperabduction of the leg at knee (bowlegs) Tibial collateral ligament
C-shaped fibrocartilage pads located on the condyles of the tibia, act as cushions between articular surfaces and continuously change shape. Medial and lateral meniscus
Ligament that runs from the posterior femur to the anterior side of the tibia, prevents hyperextension. Anterior crusiate ligament (ACL)
Ligaments that runs from the anteroinferior femus to the posterior side of the tibia, prevents hyperflexion of the knee joint. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
Seen in middle-aged or older males, caused from an increase of uric acid in blood. causes crystals to accumulate and the body's response is joint pain. Gouty Arthritis
Wear-and tear causes breakdown of joint resulting in bone rubbing. Osteoarthritis
Seen i younger and middle-aged adults, a autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system targets its own tissues for attack. Rheumatoid arthritis
Created by: 100000537368423



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