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Anatomy Chapter 20

The Urinary System

QuestionAnswer
a heavy cushion of _____ normally encases each kidney and helps hold it in place. fat
What percent of the total blood pumped by the heart each min. enters the kidneys little more than 20%
One of the main functions of the kidney is to _____________ remove waste products from the blood
outer part of the kidney renal cortex
inner portion of the kidney renal medulla
the triangular divisions of the medulla of the kidney renal pyramids
an expansion of the upper end of a ureter renal pelvis
a division of the renal pelvis calyx
more than a million microscopic units called ____________ make up each kidney's interior; its function is to produce urine. nephrons
the nephron is composed of two principal componets renal corpuscle and renal tubule
renal corpuscle: cup-shaped top of a nephron Bowman capsule
renal corpuscle: network of blood capillaries tucked into the bowman capsule Glomerulus
renal tubule: the first segment of renal tubule proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
the extension of the proximal tubule. Loop of Henle or nephron loop Henle loop
the part of the tubule distal to the ascending limb of the Henle loop Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
a straight part of a renal tubule Collecting Duct (CD)
adjusting fluid balance, excretion of nitrogenous waste products accumulated as a result of protein breakdown, also plays a key role in regulating the levels of many chemical substances in the blood functions of the kidney
function in blood volume and blood pressure regulation juxtaglomerular apparatus
stimulates the production of additional red blood cells. erthropoietin (EPO)
__________ movements that assist in moving urine through the ureters and into the bladder peristalic
the lining is loosely attached to the deeper muscular layer so that the bladder is very wrinkled and lies in folds called _________ when it is empty rugae
To leave the body, urine passes from the bladder, down the urethra, and out of its external opening urinary meatus
urethra in males and females females is shorter and has one function, males is longer and has two functions
micturition and voiding urination
two __________ act as valves that guard the pathway leading from the bladder sphincters
the internal sphincter is _______ involuntary
the external sphincter is _________ voluntary
the need to void may be noticed at volumes of 150 mL
but voiding in adults does not normally occur much below volumes of 350 mL
condition in which no urine is voided urinary retention
kidneys do not produce any urine urinary suppresion
involuntary voiding or loss of urine in an older child or adult urinary incontinence or enuresis
occurs in the absence of any sensory warning or awareness reflex incontinence
bed wetting at night nocturnal enuresis
glomerular filtration normally occurs at the rate of 125 mL per minute about 180 liters every day
what percent of 180 mL water that leaves the blood each day by glomerular filtration returns to the blood by proximal tubule reabsorption. 99%
glucose in the urine glycosuria
water retaining, output of urine down, blood pressure goes up Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and aldosterone
secreted from the heart, lose more water, increase of output of urine atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
absence of urine anuria
scanty amounts of urines oliguria
an unusually large amount of urine polyuria
physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine urinalysis
discomfort and painful burning urination dysuria
pathological swelling or enlargement of the renal pelvis and calyces caused by blockage of urine outflow hydronephrosis
kidney stones renal calculi
traces of blood in urine hematuria
inflammation of the urethra, STDs urethritis
inflammation of the bladder cystitis
refers to the need for frequent urination overactive bladder
general term for kidney disease nephritis
presence of proteins in the urine proteinuria
swelling edema
concentration of nitrogenous wastes in the blood is often assessed by _____________ blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test
Created by: Blogan