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Chapter 4 Review

List at least 5 functions of skin (pt. 1) 1. protects deeper tissues from mechanical damage, etc. 2. aids in loss or retention of body heat as controlled by the nervous system 3. aids in excretion of urea and uric acid
List at least 5 functions of skin (pt. 2) 4. synthesizes vitamin D 5. cutaneous sensory receptors detect touch, temperature, pressure, and pain
Compare & contrast thick & thin skin Thick skin is the tougher part of your skin (ex. heels, palms). It has 5 layers of skin. Thin skin covers everything else with just 4 layers
The most common type of cell in the epidermis is...? squamous cells
When you shave your skin, you are losing many layers of cells, why don't you bleed? It doesn't damage the dermis
Describe the layers of the epidermis. (matching) stratum basale stratum spinosum stratum granulosum stratum lucid stratum corneum
What is melanin, what type of cells make melanin, where is melanin mostly found, and what affects the amount of melanin a person has? Melanin is the pigment of skin produced by melanocytes. Melanocytes are mostly in the stratum basale. The affects are how light or dark the skin is.
Compare & contrast dendritic & merkel cells Dendritic cells are alert & activate immune cells to a threat (bacterial or viral invasion) Merkel cells are associated with sensory nerve endings & serve as touch receptors called Merkel discs.
Describe the layers of the dermis (matching) Papillary & reticular layer
What are sebaceous glands? How does the sebum that they produce help the body? Sebaceous, or oil glands, are found everywhere but the thick skin in you palms & foot soles. The sebum is a lubricant for the skin, prevents brittle hair, & kills bacteria
What are sudoriferous glands? Name 2 types of these glands. Sweat glands; they produce sweat & are widely distributed in the skin. Eccrine & apocine glands
Explain how a body can produce odor from sweating if sweat has no odor. The odor of sweat comes from a bacteria
Label strand of hair Outside: hair cuticle Second layer: cortex Inner layer: medulla
What are the "Rules of Nines" used for? Explain. It is a way to determine the extent of burns. The body is divided into 11 areas for quick estimation. Each area represents about 9% of total body surface area. The area around the genitals represents 1% of body surface area.
Describe first-degree burns Only epidermis is damaged Skin is red and swollen
Describe second-degree burns Epidermis and upper dermis are damaged Skin is red with blisters
Describe third-degree burns Destroys entire skin layer; burned area is painless Requires skin grafts Burn is gray-white or black
Under what circumstances are burns considered to be critical? Over 25% of the body has second-degree burn Over 10% of the body has third-degree burns There are third-degree burns of the face, hands, or feet
Describe infections & allergies that can affect the skin (matching) Contact dermatitis- poison ivy: exposures cause allergic reaction Impetigo- caused by bacterial infection Psoriasis- cause is unknown; triggered by trauma, infection, stress
Describe the 2 ways cancer can be classified Benign: does not spread (encapsulated) Malignant: metastasizes (moves) to other parts of the body
Describe the 3 types of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Malignant melanoma
Explain the ABCD rule A- asymmetry: two sides of pigmented mole do not match B- border irregularity: borders of mole are not smooth C- color: different colors in pigmented area D- diameter: spot is larger than 6mm
What can contribute to a change in skin color or alteration in skin color? (orange, red, paleness, yellow, black/blue, brown/black) Homeostatic imbalance
Created by: kajones97



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