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1079/1080 Tactics

Tactics Exam Modules for Combat Orders and Principles of Defense

QuestionAnswer
What is the FM reference for Planning and Orders? FM 5-0
What are the 3 types of combat orders? WARNO, OPORD, FRAGO
Does a WARNO typically include EXECUTION? No, unless it is specifically stated.
What is the purpose of a WARNO? 1. To give preliminary notice of an order or action which is to follow. 2. It helps subordinate units and staffs prepare for new missions. 3. It provides details of the impending operation, and detail events that accompany preparation and execution.
What is an OPORD? 1. A directive issued by a leader to his subordinates in order to effect the coordinated execution of a specific operation. 2. The OPORD uses the five-paragraph format to organize a briefing, ensure completeness and help subordinates understand/execute.
What should be briefed with an OPORD? 1. A map (at minimum) 2. Terrain overlay 3. Terrain model 4. Concept sketch 5. Other supporting resources
What is a FRAGO? 1. An abbreviated form of an OPORD, usually issued on a day-to-day basis that eliminates need for restating info contained in a basic OPORD 2. Used to change or modify an OPORD, or supplement it.
What is the purpose of conducting defensive operations? 1. Defeat enemy attack 2. Gain time to prep for other ops 3. Allow higher to concentrate forces elsewhere 4. Control key enemy forces as prelude to offense 5. Retain key or decisive terrain
CHARACTERISTICS OF DEFENSE 1. Massing Effects 2. Flexibility 3. Preparation 4. Security 5. Disruption
DEFENSE PREPARATION 1. Arrive in battle area before enemy and seize advantages. 2. Use METT-TC to ID potential enemy/friendly weaknesses 3. Synch CONOP with all avail. resources 4. Ensure 360 degree security 5. Begin R&S plan immediately
MASSING EFFECTS Defenders seek to mass the effects of overwhelming combat power where they choose and shift it to support the decisive operation (Main Effort)
DISRUPTION 1. Disrupt attackers tempo or synch by countering enemy initiative and preventing massing of overwhelming combat power 2. Disrupts fire, logistical, Command and Control support 3. Use spoiling attacks before enemy can focus combat power
FLEXIBILITY 1. must be agile enough to avoid blows and strike back effectively (derived from sound prep and effective C2) 2. ability to shift main effort (ME) 3. aggressive recon/surveillance (R&S) 4. retention of reserve 5. prep with alternate/supp positions
SECURITY 1. Never permit the enemy to acquire an unexpected advantage 2. Sec. ops help deceive the enemy as to friendly locations, strengths and weaknesses
TYPES OF DEFENSIVE OPS 1. Mobile Defense 2. Area Defense 3. Retrograde
DEFENSIVE PLANNING 1. Where/how to defend 2. Sequence of defense 3. Types of positions 4. Occupation plan 5. Security plan 6. Reserve 7. Fire control measures
WHERE TO DEFEND Defensive Techniques: 1. defend in sector 2. from a battle position 3. from a strongpoint 4. a perimeter 5. a reverse slope
DEFEND IN SECTOR 1. positions arrayed in depth 2. strength in flexibility 3. enemy, not terrain, oriented 4. allows enemy to expose flanks, C2 and combat support assets
DEFEND FROM A BATTLE POSITION 1. linear and centralized 2. surprise and maneuverability b/t battle positions 3. concentrating combat power into engagement areas (EAs) 4. support BP cover, enemy avenues of approach, and vehicular movement
PERIMETER DEFENSE 1. for use when no friendly units are adjacent to the defending platoon 2. disperse into 360 degree security (circular config), actual shape terrain dependent
DEFEND STRONGPOINT 1. hold key/decisive terrain 2. block AoA 3. canalize enemy (bottleneck) 4. defend point til relieved or ordered out 5. includes reinforcing fighting positions to withstand offense 6. includes stocking supplies, making obstacles
DEFEND FROM REVERSE SLOPE Masks friendlies behind crest of hill from direct fire and recon ADVANTAGES 1. close contact/surprise 2. exposes tops of vehicles 3. can use dummy positions DISADV. 1. short field of fire 2. degraded observation 3. enemy assaults downhill
SEQUENCE OF DEFENSE 1. prepare for combat 2. move to defensive pos. 3. establish defensive pos. 4. locate enemy 5. start action on enemy 6. fight the defense 7. consolidate/reorg.
DEFENSIVE CONSIDERATIONS 1. defend in depth 2. create mutual support 3. passive/active sec. measures 4. make max use of key wpn sys. 5. decide on obstacle composition/loc. 6. place MG on likely enemy AoA 7. place anti-armor on likely mounted AoA 8. max use of offen action
TYPES OF BATTLE POSITIONS 1. Primary 2. Alternate 3. Supplementary
OCCUPATION OF DEFENSE Why? 1. prevent confusion 2. estab. quick security 3. allows parallel planning 4. allows priority of work to commence ASAP
PRIORITY OF WORK 1. est. security 2. position key wpn 3. clear fields of fire, prep range cards 4. prep fighting pos. 5. emplace obstacles/mines 6. prep alt. positions 7. est. work rest plan 8. stockpile ammo, food, water
SECURITY PLANS Active Measures 1. R&S patrols 2. Stand-to/Stand-down 3. Ground Surv. Radar (GSR) Passive Measures 1. Noise/light/litter discipline 2. Radio silence 3. Camouflage Counter Recon
RESERVE Platoon Level 1. consist of rifle squad, fire team or headquarters element 2. some situations require committed forces to be preped to act as reserve 3. primary purpose is to regain initiative thru counterattack
DIRECT FIRE CONTROL MEASURES Types: 1. MGs 2. M203 3. AT-4 4. Close air suppport Aids: 1. EAs 2. Sectors of Fire 3. TRPs 4. Engagement priorities
ENGAGEMENT AREA Location where commander intends to trap and destroy an enemy force using massed fires of all available weapons 1. Determine where you want to kill the enemy 2. plan/emplace obstacles 3. emplace direct fire wpns 4. rehearse execution of ops in EA
INDIRECT FIRE CONTROL MEASURES Types: 1. M203 2. Mortars 3. Artillery 4. Naval gunfire Aids: 1. Targets 2. Final protective fire 3. Priority targets
FINAL PROTECTIVE FIRES FPFs are preplanned barriers of direct/indirect fires designed to protect friendlies from an enemy dismounted assault
ARMY OPERATIONS DOCTRINE Doctrine is the concise expression of how America's Army forces contribute to unified action in campaigns, major operations, battles and engagements.
SOURCES OF DOCTRINE 1. technological advances 2. American society 3. political goals 4. historical lessons 5. monetary resources broken into: 1. Tactis/Techniques 2. Procedures
TACTICS Tactics is the employing of units in combat
Created by: alexkowalski