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Nervous System

Nervous System Test

QuestionAnswer
What are Schwann cells? Make myelin sheath around large nerves in PNS: act as phagocytes to rid a damaged nerve of deteriorating cell debris
What are satellite cells? control chemical environment of neurons
what are the divisions and subdivisions of the nervous system? 1a: Central 1b: Peripheral 2a: Sensory (afferent) 2b: Motor (efferent) 3a: Autonomic 3b: Somatic 4a: Sympathetic 4b: Parasympathetic
what are the 3 types of neurons? Multipolar: has several dendrites and an axon, most common, major type in CNS Biopolar: has only process-one dendrite and one axon, rare: found only in special sense organs Unipolar: single process, found primarily in PNS
What are the 2 types of synapses? Electrical: bridged junction, transmission across the synapse is very fast, found in brain in areas responsible for stereotyped movements, abundant in embryonic nervous tissue Chemical: specialized for release and reception of chemical neurotransmitters
what are the 3 types of areas into which the cortex can be divided? Motor, sensory, and association
what 3 structures make up the diencephalon? thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
what 3 structures make up the brain stem? Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
what are the 3 meninges? dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
what 3 parts make up the blood-brain barrier? 1. Continuous endothelium of the capillary wall 2. relatively thick basement membrane surrounding the external face of the capillary 3. bulbous "feet" of the astrocytes that cling to the capillaries
what are the 3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve? Opthalmic division, maxillary division, and mandibular division
what are the 5 divisions of the facial nerve? temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical (two zebras bit my cow)
what are the 4 basic tastes? sweet, sour, salty, and bitter
what are the 3 layers of the eyeball? Fibrous tunic, vascular tunic, and sensory tunic
what are the 2 types of photoreceptors in the retina? what do they detect? rods-gray tones and cones-color
what is meningitis? Inflammation of the meninges
what is a concussion? skull hits the brain
what is encephalitis? Brain Inflammation
what is hydrocephalus? Obstruction in CSF drainage
what is multiple sclerosis? Demyelinating disease
what is the difference between spastic and flaccid paralysis? Spastic: Results from upper neuron damage; muscles remain healthy, but are no longer under voluntary control Flaccid: results from lower neuron damage; no signal reaches the muscles so they begin to atrophy
what are the 3 types of paralysis? Paraplegia, quadriplegia, and hemiplegia
what is astigmatism? unequal curves of the lens or cornea
what is conjunctivitis? eye becomes red and irritated
why does motion sickness occur? mixed signals sent to brain
what are the 3 primary brain vesicles? Prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon
what are the 5 secondary brain vesicles? what do they form? Telencephalon (cerebral hemispheres), diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus), mesencephalon (midbrain), metencephalon (pons and cerebellum), and myelencephalon (medulla oblongata)
what are the 5 types of spinal nerves and how many of each type exist? cervical-8, thoracic-12, lumbar-5, saccral-5, and coccygeal-1
how do tears flow through the lacrimal apparatus? lacrimal gland, tears, drain into the lacrimal canal, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct
what are the 6 extrinsic eye muscles? Their actions? Nerve innervations? Superior rectus (Superiorly, CNIII), inferior rectus (Inferiorly, CNIII), medial rectus (Medially, CNIII), Lateral rectus (Laterally, CNVI), superior oblique (Down and laterally CNIV), inferior oblique (Up and laterally, CNIII)
what are the 4 types of neuroglia? Astrocytes, microglia, cpendymal, and oligodendrocytes
what is the function of astrocytes? star-shaped cells that make up 1/2 of neural tissue volume, help to attach neurons to blood vessels, control ionic environment around neurons
what is the function of microglia? protect CNS against invading organisms
what is the function of cpendymal? line cavities of brain/spinal cord, makes CSF, have cilia to move CSF
what is the function of oligodendrocytes? makes the myelin sheaths in CNS
Created by: mchuan