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Stack #1977078

Chapter 3 & 4 Vocabulary

Solstice either of two times a yaer when the sun rays shine directly overhead at noon at the furthest point N or S, and that marks the beginning of summer and winter; in the Northern Hemisphere, the summer solstice is the longest day and the winter the shortest.
Equinox Each of the two days in a year on which day and night are equal in length; marks the beginning of spring and autumn.
Weather The condition of the atmosphere at a particular location and time.
Climate The typical weather conditions at a particular location as observed over time.
Precipitation Falling water droplets in the form of rain, sleet, snow, or hell.
Rain Shadow The land on the leeward side of hills or mountains that gets little rain from the descending dry air.
Hurricane A storm that forms over warm, tropical ocean waters.
Typhoon A tropical storm, like a hurricane, that occurs in the western Pacific.
Tornado A powerful funnel-shaped column of spiraling air.
Blizzard A heavy snowstorm with winds of more than 35 miles per hour and reduced visibility of less than one-quater mile.
Drought A long period without rain or with very minimal rainfall.
Convection The transfer of heat in the atmosphere by upward motion of the air.
El Nino A weather pattern created by the warning of waters off the West Coast of South America, which pushes warm water and heavy rains toward the Americas and produces drought conditions in Australia and Africa.
Greenhouse Effect The layers of gases released by the burning of coal and petroleum that traps solar energy, causing global temperature to increase.
Tundra the flat tree less lands forming a ring around the Antarctic Ocean; the climate region of the Arctic ocean.
Permafrost Permanently frozen ground.
Ecosystem An interdependent community of plants and animals.
Biome A regional ecosystem.
Deciduous A named characteristics of broad leaf trees-such as maple, oak, birch, and cottonwood.
Rain Forest A forest region located in the Tropical Zone with a heavy concentration of different species of broad leaf trees.
Coniferous Another word for needle leaf trees.
Savanna The term for flat, grassy, mostly treeless plains in the tropical grassland region.
Steppe The term used for the temperature glass land region in the Northern Hemisphere.
Culture The total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of a group.
Society A group that shares a geographic region, a common language, and a sense of identity and culture.
Ethnic Group A group of people who share language, customs, and a common heritage.
Innovation Taking existing elements of society and creating something new to meet a need.
Diffusion The spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns, or patterns of behavior ro different societies.
Cultural Hearth The heartland or place of origin of a major culture; sight of innovation, from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to different cultures.
Acculaturation The culture change that occurs when individuals in a society accept or adopt an innovation.
Dialect A version of a language that reflects changes in speech patterns due to class, region, or cultural changes.
Religion The belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as the creators or maintainers of the universe, as well as the system of beliefs itself.
Birthrate The number of live births per total population, often expressed per thousand population.
Fertility Rate The average number of children a women of childbearing years would have in her lifetime, if she had children at at the current rate for the country.
Mortality Rate The number of deaths per thousands.
Infant Morality Rate The number of deaths among infants under the age of one as measured per thousand live births.
Rate of Natural Increase Also called population growth rate- the rate at which population is growing, found by subtracting the mortality rate from the birthrate.
Population Pyramid A graphic device that shows gender and age distribution of a population.
Push-Pull Factors Push: A factor that cause people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region. Pull: A factor that draws or attracts people to another location.
Population Density The average number of people who live in a measurable area, reached by dividing the number of inhabitants in an area by the amount of land they occupy.
Carrying Capacity The number of organisms a piece of land can support without negative effects.
State A political term describing an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has a full control of its internal and external affairs.
Nation A group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong since of unity.
Nation-State The name of a territory when a nation and a state occupy the same nation.
Democracy A type of government in which citizens hold political power either directly or through elected representatives.
Monarchy A type of government in which a ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with the citizens bodies.
Dictatorship A type of government in which a individual or a group holds complete political power.
Communism A system in which the government holds nearly all of political power and the means of production.
Land Locked Having no outlet to the sea.
Urban Geography The study of how people use space in cities.
City An area that is the center of business and culture and has a large population.
Suburb A poltical unit or community touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the city.
Metropolitan Area A functional area including a city and its surrounding suburb and exurbs, linked economically.
Urbanization The dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle and that result.
(CDB) Central Buisness District The core of a city, which is almost always based on commercial activity.
Economy The production and exchange of goods and services among people.
Economic System The way people produce and exchange goods.
Command Economy A type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production. Also called a planned economy.
Market Economy A type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by the demand from consumers. Also called a demand economy or capitalism.
Natural Resources A material on or in the earth, such as trees, fish, or coal, that has economic value.
Infrastructure The basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems.
Per Capita Income The average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit.
GNP The total value of goods and services produced by a country in a period of time.
Outsourcing Because economies have become so inter connected, the GNP may reflect the value of goods or services produced in one country by a company based in another country.
GDP The value of goods and services produced within a country in a period of time.
Free-trade Zones The exchange of goods among nations without trade barriers, such as tariffs.
Socialism The government controls most of a country's means of production and the distribution of goods and services. Other aspects of the economy are subject to make forces.
Created by: Courtney5
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