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Bone Tissue

A&P notes for test

TermDefinition
5 Functions of bone -attachment for muscles -protection and support -formation of blood cells -storage of inorganic salts -passageway for nerves and blood vessles
Osteocytes (bone cells) are located in small chambers called lacunae that are arranged in concentric rings made up of the bone cells and a matrix
Matrix is made up of collagen (makes it strong and resilient) and inorganic salts (calcium phosphate makes it hard and resistant to crushing)
Calcium phosphate makes it hard and resistant to crushing
Canaliculi osteocytes communicate with each other by tiny passageways called Canaliculi
Lamellae layers of lamellae (osteocytes and matrix) form an osteon
Osteon which has a central canal
Haversian Canal many osteons make up compact bone - spongy bone just doesn't have as much matrix and the cells are not arranged in osteons
Volkmann's Canal haversian canal runs longitudinally in bone and are connected by transverse canals called Volkmann's Canal
Intramembranous Bone bone grows from primitive cartilage tissue by osteoblasts - bone forming cells - located between layers of membranes EX. flat bones of the skull
Endochondral Bone forms from hyaline cartilage that is the shape of the future bone EX. most of the bones of the skeleton
Osteoclasts bone destroying cells
Osteoblasts bone forming cells work to get just the right amount of bone tissue in just the right places
Parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone tissue and thus releases calcium into the blood
Calcitonin (from the thyroid gland) stimulates osteoblasts to build more matrix and thus remove calcium from the blood
Joints places where bone (articulates with) meets bone
3 Types of Joints -fibrous: bones that closely contact each other EX. sutures of skull -cartilaginous: when hyaline or fibrocartilage is between the bones EX. intervertebral discs -synovial: most of the articulations of the skeleton - these joints allow for much movement
Examples of Synovial Joints -Pivot: btw. the head and the atlas -Hinge: at the elbow & knee -Ball & Socket: at the shoulder & hip -Gliding: at the carpals & tarsals -Saddle: at the thumb
Osteoporosis
Created by: shipmaal