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Anatomy Chapter 23

The Reproductive Systems

reproductive cells (ovum, sperm) gametes
reproductive cells fused together zygote
essential organs for reproduction (testes, ovaries) gonads
located in the scrotum, which is suspended outside of the body cavity behind the penis. 1-3 degrees cooler which is important for sperm production and survival. testes
secrete the male sex hormone (testosterone) interstitial cells
sperm production spermatogenesis
secretes follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone anterior pituitary gland
type of cell division. 23 chromosomes meiosis
sperm head, contains the nucleus with genetic material. It has a cap like structure containing enzymes that enable the sperm to break down the covering of the ovum acrosome
masculinizes, development of male accessory organs, stimulating effect on protein anabolism. testosterone
consists of a single and very tightly coiled tube. sperm develop the ability to move or swim. epididymis
painful inflammation of the epididymis epididymitis
tube that permits sperm to exit from the epididymis and pass from the scrotal sac upward into the abdominal cavity vas deferens
passes through the substance of the prostate gland and permits sperm to empty into the urethra. ejaculatory duct
term used to describe the mixture of cells or sperm produced by the testes. Usually 3-5 mL. 1mL= 20-100 million sperm. Slightly alkaline semen
pouchlike glands that contribute about 60% of the seminal fluid volume. provides a source of energy for the highly motile sperm seminal vesicles
lies just below the bladder and is shaped like a doughnut. secretes a thin, milk-colored fluid that constitutes about 30 % of the total seminal fluid volume, activates the sperm prostate gland
cowper glands, mucus like secretions of these glands lubricate the terminal portion of the urethra to decrease friction damage to sperm at the time of ejaculation and contribute less than 5% of the seminal fluid volume. bulbourethral glands
the skin of the distal end of the penis is folded doubly to form a loose-fitting retractable collar around the glans foreskin
surgical removal of the foreskin circumcision
abnormally low ability to reproduce infertility
inability to reproduce sterility
sperm count low. oligospermia
possible factors for oligospermia infection, fever, radiation, malnutrition, and high temperature in the testes
baby born with undescended testes cryptorchidism
noncancerous condition common problem in older men. Characterized by an enlargement of the prostate gland benign prostatic hypertrophy
surgical removal of a part of the prostate gland or the entire gland prosatectomy
when the intestines push through the weak area of the abdominal wall that separates the abdominopelvic cavity from the scrotum inguinal hernia
production of female gametes oogensis
the ovary secretes sex hormones estrogen and progesterone
development and maturation of female reproductive organs, breast development, development of body contours, initiation of the first menstrual cycle. Estrogen
stimulates proliferation and vascularization of the epithelial lining of the uterus and acts with estrogen to initiate the menstrual cycle in girls entering puberty progesterone
removal of ovaries oophorectomy
surgical removal of uterus hysterectomy
menstrual cramps dysmenorrhea
absence of normal menstruation amenorrhea
irregular or excessive uterine bleeding that most often results from either a hormonal imbalance or some type of structural problem that causes disruption of blood supply dysfunctional uterine bleeding
occurs as either an acute or chronic inflammatory condition that can be caused by several different pathogens, which usually spread upward from the vagina pelvic inflammatory disease
inflammation or infection of the vaginal lining vaginitis
enlarged ovaries that usually are studded with fluid-filled cysts. high levels of testosterone polycystic ovary syndrome
very common fluid-filled cysts that develop either from follicles that fail to rupture completely or from corpora lutea that fail to degenerate ovarian cysts
lump removal lumpectomy
removal of entire breast mastectomy
virus: immune system impairment. AIDS
fungus: yeast infection candidiasis
virus: blisters on the skin of the genitals genital herpes
virus: warts of the skin covering the genitals genital warts
protozoan: intestinal infection giardiasis
bacterium: involves the genital and urinary tracts gonorrhea
virus: liver inflammation hepatitis
bacterium: genital ulcers, swollen lymph nodes, headache, fever, and muscle pain lymphogranuloma venereum
animal: itch mite scabies
bacterium: chancre sores syphilis
protozoan: urological infection trichomoniasis
Created by: Blogan



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