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Tissues Chapter 4

TermDefinition
epithelial tissue sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
apical surface upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of an internal organ
basal surface surface near lower side or bottom of a structure
microvilli fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane
basal lamina adjacent to basal surface; thin supporting sheet
reticular lamina layer of extracellular material containing a fine network of collagen protein fibers that belongs to the underlying connective tissue
basement membrane reinforces the epithelial sheet, helps it resist stretching and tearing, defines epithelial boundary
simple epithelia single cell layer, found where secretion, absorption, and filtration occur
stratified epithelia composed of two or more layers stacked on top of each other, common in high-abrasion areas like skin
squamous epithelia cells flattened and scale-like
cuboidal epithelia cells boxlike, tall as they are wide
columnar epithelia cells tall and column shaped
pseudostratifed epithelium false impression that several cell layers are present
transitional epithelium forms the lining of hollow urinary organs
endocrine gland ductless glands
exocrine gland secrete their products onto body surfaces or into body cavities
merocrine gland secrete their products by exocytosis as they are produced
holocrine gland accumulate their products within them until they rupture
apocrine gland accumulate their products just only beneath free surface, present in animals
vascularity rich supply of blood vessels
ground substance unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contains the fibers
collagen fibers constructed mostly of fibrous protein collagen
elastic fibers long, thin, form branching networks in extracellular matrix
reticular fibers short, fine, collagenous fibers with slightly different chemistry and form
blast cells immature cells
cyte cells mature cells
mast cells cluster along blood vessels, detect foreign microorganisms and initiate local inflammatory responses against them
macrophage large, irregularly shaped cells that avidly devour a broad variety of foreign materials
areolar connective tissue support and bind other tissues, holding body against fluids, defending against infection, storing nutrients as fat in adipocytes
mesenchyme common embryonic tissue, has fluid ground substance containing fine sparse fibers and star shaped mesenchymal cells.
lamina propia line body cavities open to the exterior
adipose tissue nutrient storing ability is much greater than areolar tissue
adipocyte fat cells
brown adipose tissue contains abundant mitochondria, which use the lipid fuels to heat the bloodstream to warm the body
reticular connective tissue only fibers in its matrix are reticular fibers which form a delicate network along which fibroblasts called reticular cells are scattered
stroma "bed" internal framework that can support many free blood cells in lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow
myofilament elaborate networks of the actin and myosin filaments that bring about movement or contraction in all cell types
voluntary muscle contraction is under our conscious control
involuntary muscle unconsciously controlled
muscle fiber long, cylindrical cells that contain many peripherally located nuclei
intercalated discs branching cells that fit together tightly at unique junctions
neuron highly specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses
cutaneous membrane skin
mucous membrane line all body cavities that open to the outside of the body
serous membrane (serosae) moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavities
serous fluid lubricates the facing surfaces of the parietal and visceral layers so they slide across each other easily
scar tissue formed when dense connective tissue proliferates
scab part of the clot exposed to air quickly dries and hardens
granulation tissue delicate pink tissue that contains capillaries that grow in from nearby areas and lay down a new capillary bed
dense regular connective tissue contains closely packed bundles of collagen fibers running in the same direction, parallel to the direction of the pull
tendon attaches muscle to bone
ligaments connects bones
fascia layers of fibrous tissue covering and separating muscle
dense irregular connective tissue bundles of collagen fibers are much thicker and they are arranged irregularly; if they run in more than one plane
hyaline cartilage gristle, most abundant cartilage in the body... matrix appears glassy blue-white when viewed by the unaided eye
elastic cartilage lots of elastic fibers, found where strength and exceptional stretchability are needed
fibrocartilage rows of chondrocytes alternate with rows of thick collagen fibers, found where strong support and the ability to stand heavy pressure are required, cartilage
osseous tissue bone, has exceptional ability to support and protect body structures
osteoblasts produce organic portion of the matrix and the bone salts are deposited on and between fibers
osteocytes mature bone cells, reside in the lacunae with the matrix they have made
osteon formed of concentric rings of bony matrix surrounding central canals containing the blood vessels and nerves serving the bone
erythrocyte red blood cells
endothelium inner covering, provides a slick friction-reducing lining in lymphatic vessels and in all hollow organs of cardiovascular system
mesothelium middle covering, found in serous membranes, lines the ventral body cavity and coverings its organs
Created by: 1654352808142233