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chapter 4 test

QuestionAnswer
5 functions of skin mechanical damage, chemical damage, bacterial damage, ultraviolet radiation, thermal damage.
compare & contrast thick & thin skin thick: 5 layers thin: 4 layers both in the granulosum layer
The most common type of cell in the epidermis is ___. keratinocytes
5 layers of epidermis basale - deepest layer spinosum - contains thick layer of pre-keratin granulosum - cytoplasm lucidum - hairless; only in thick skin corneum - outermost layer of epidermis; dead cells
What is melanin, what type of cells make melanin, where is melanin mostly found, and what affects the amount of melanin a person has? 1. pigment 2. produced by melanocytes 3. mostly in the stratum basale 4. depends on genetics and expose to sunlight
Compare and contrast dendritic and merkel cells 1. dendritic - alert and activate immune cells to a threat 2. merkel - serve as touch receptors
Describe the layers of the dermis. (matching) 1. papillary layer - upper dermal region; some contain capillary loops 2. reticular layers - blood vessels; sweat glands
What are sebaceous glands? How does the sebum that they produce help the body? Sebaceous glands = oil glands. The sebum helps the body by lubricating the skin and killing bacteria.
What are sudoriferous glands? Name 2 types of these glands. sudoriferous glands = sweat glands. the two types are eccrine glands & apocrine
Explain how a body can produce odor from sweating if sweat has no odor. the body can produce odor from sweating because the bacteria uses the sweat to make the odor.
What are the “Rules of Nines” used for? Explain. the rules of nines are used in calculating body surface area involved in burns. 9% for all 11 regions.
Describe the 3 degrees of burns. 1.first-degree burns only epidermis is damaged 2. second-degree burns epidermis and upper dermis are changed 3. third-degree burns destroys entire skin layer; burned area is painless
Under what circumstances are burns considered to be critical? - burns are considered critical if - over 25% of body has second-degree burns - over 10% of the body had third-degree burns - there are third-degree burns on the face, hands, or feet
Describe infections and allergies that can affect the skin. (matching) - contact dermatitis cause allergic reaction - impetigo caused by bacterial infection - psoriasis cause is unknown triggered by trauma, infection, stress
Describe the 2 ways cancer can be classified. - benign - does not spread - malignant - moves to other parts of the body
Describe infections and allergies that can affect the skin. (matching) - contact dermatitis cause allergic reaction - impetigo caused by bacterial infection - psoriasis cause is unknown triggered by trauma, infection, stress
Describe the 2 ways cancer can be classified. - benign does not spread - malignant moves to other parts of the body
Describe the 3 types of skin cancer. 1. Basal cell carcinoma least malignant most common 2. Squamous cell carcinoma early removal allows a good chance of cure believed to be sun-induced 3. Malignant melanoma most deadly uses ABCD rule
Explain the ABCD rule A = Asymmetry Two sides of pigmented mole do not match B = Border irregularity Borders of mole are not smooth C = Color Different colors in pigmented area D = Diameter Spot is larger than 6 mm in diameter
What can contribute to a change in skin color or alteration in skin color? (orange, red, paleness, yellow, black/blue, brown/black) keratin
Created by: emarroquin