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Anatomy Unit 1 part

Flash cards Physiology part 2

Why do we care about anatomy and physiology? *Biology (relationships),unity, patterns *Curiosity *Health related fields *Function of human body *health disease.
What is anatomy? *means cutting open" *considered the oldest medical science *Study of the structure of the internal and external body.
What is physiology? * The study of function and organisms vital activites
Organisms' vital activites *mainly internal *Biochemistry *Biology *Chemistry *Genetics
Molecular Biology Branch of biology that studies structure and function on a cellular or molecular level.
Anatomy Questions to ask yourself What they are made of? *Where are they located? Does it have associated structures?
Physiology Questions to ask yourself How does it work? How are they involved to perform a certain function? How do they communicate?
Structure and function relation All specific functions are performed by specific structures structure = function
How many years apart did it take for they to discover the heart? 200 years
Medical Terminology use of key roots ,prefixes, suffixes and combining forms to contrast terms related to the body in health and disease.
The 4 building blocks of medical terminology? Roots, Prefixes, Suffixes, and combining terms
Roots Meaning of a medical term
Prefixes attached to the beginning of a medical term
Suffixes at the end of a medical term
combining forms Combining independent words and word roots to create medical terminology.
Homeostasis Maintenance of a relatively constant internal internal environment (Abnormal/Normal conditions)
Eponyms commemorative names for structures or clinical condition (real or mythical person)
Anatomy Greek -Anatomy =dissection
ana- means (prefix) up
-tomy means (suffix) cut
Pathology study of disease
Path- means (prefix) disease (pathos)
-ology means (suffix) study of
Types of anatomy *Gross *Microscopic *Surgical
Gross also means macroscopic
Gross anatomy *large structures *Features that are visible
Microscopic anatomy *small structures *Is limited by equipment use
Surgical anatomy useful for surgical procedures
Gross anatomy is also known as surface anatomy general form and superficial markings
Regional anatomy Anatomy organization of specific areas
Systemic anatomy organ systems and their function as a whole ( include skeletal system and cardiovascular system)
Developmental anatomy changes throughout the year and conception to physical maturity *embryology
Clinical anatomy *Pathological anatomy-during illness *Radiographic anatomy-using imaging techniques
Microscopic anatomy subdivisions *cytology * histology
Cytology study of internal structure and function of a cell
Cyt- means (prefix) cell
Cell basic/simplest unit of life
Histology Consists of the examination or study of tissues
Tissues composed of specialized cells working together to perform a specific function
Physiology *study of functions of anatomical structures *complex more specific
Human Physiology functions of the human body
Cell Physiology *function of cells *chemical and molecular level *inside and between cells
Organ Physiology Specific organs (cardiac physiology)
Systemic Physiology Organs as an entirety (11 organ systems)
Pathological Physiology Effects of diseases on organ function or system functions
How does physiology apply to the real world? If you get constant migraines you have to go into the doctor where they will get you for problems. If they find nothing after gross examination and radiologic imaging they have to open you up (anatomy) and get a biopsy to test. (under a microscope)
Superficial anatomy Locating structures on or near a body structure -palpable structures, anatomical regions, and anatomical direction
Anatomical landmarks used to remember locations (pectoralis, brachium)
Anatomical position (standard reference for the human body) *Supine *Prone
Anatomical region Describe areas of interest
How many abdominopelvic quadrants? 4
How many adominopelvic regions? 9
Abdominopelvic quadrants Right upper quadrant (RUQ),Left upper quadrant (LUQ), Right lower quadrant (RLQ),Left lower quadrant (LLQ)
Where are the abdominopelvic quadrants formed? 2 perpendicular lines(+) that intersect at the naval or umbilicus
Define anatomical relationships The relationship between the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions and the locations of the internal organs.
sectional anatomy helps you understand planes and sections on the human body
What is a Plane? 3D axis-used to visualize internal organization and structure
Frontal/Coronal parallel to long axis of the body (divides body in anterior and posterior)
Sagittal Parallel to long axis of the body (right and left side)
Mid sagittal divides body into exact portion of left and right
Parasagittal line parallel to midsagittal regardless of area it cuts through
Transverse Horizontal-divided body into superior and inferior portions
Define Section single view or slice along one of these planes
Levels of organization in the body *1st-chemical/molecular 2nd- cellular 3rd-Tissue 4th-Organ 5th-Organ system 6th-Organism
chemical/molecular level *Atoms-(smallest unit of life) *Form molecules *structure and function * shape and atomic component 1st unit of life
Cellular * smallest unit of life * Formed by molecules * 2nd level or organization
Tissue composed of a group of cells working together to perform
Organ Two or more tissues working in combination to perform several functions
Organ System Group of organs that perform a particular function
Organism composed of all the levels
Integumentary system ( Major organs) * skin *Hair * sweat glands * nails
Functions of the Integumentary system *protection against environmental hazards *Temperature regulation * Provides sensory information
Skeletal System *Bones * Cartilages * Associated ligaments * Bone marrow
Function of skeletal system Provides support and protection for other tissues *stores calcium and other minerals *Forms blood cells
Muscular system Skeletal muscles and associated tendons
Function of skeletal system provides movement * provides protection and support for other tissues * generates heat that maintains body temperature
Organ system *Brain(CNS) *Spinal cord (CNS) * Peripheral nerves * senses organs
Function of organ system *Directs immediate responses to stimuli *Coordinates or moderates activities or other organ systems *Provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions
Endocrine system *Pituitary gland *Pancreas *Gonads *Endocrine tissues in other systems *Thyroids gland *Adrenal glands
Function of Endocrine system *Directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems * adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body * Controls many structural and functional changes during development * Hormone release
Cardiovascular system *Heart * blood *blood vessels
Functions of Cardiovascular system Distributes blood cells, water and dissolved materials including nutrients, waste products, and carbon dioxide *Distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature
Lymphatic System *spleen *Thymus *Lymphatic vessels * Lymph nodes * Tonsils
Function of Lymphatic system *Defends against infection and disease * Return tissue fluids to the bloodstream
Respiratory System *Nasal cavities *Sinuses *Larynx *Trachea *Bronchi *Lungs *Alveoli
Function of Respiratory System *Delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs) *Provides oxygen to bloodstream * Removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream *Produces sounds for communication
Male reproductive system *testes *Epididymis * Ductus deferens * Seminal vesicles * Prostate gland * Penis * scrotum
Function of male reproductive system *Produces male sex cells (sperm) suspending fluids, and hormones *sexual intercourse
Urinary System *Kidneys *Ureters * Urinary bladder *urethra
Functions of Urinary system * Excretes waste products from the blood *Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced * stores urine prior to voluntary elimination * Regulates blood ion concentrations and pH
Digestive Systems *Teeth *Tongue *Pharynx *Esophagus *Stomach *small intestine * large intestine * liver *gallbladder *pancreas
Function of digestive system *Processes and digests food *Absorbs and conserves water *Absorbs nutrients *Stores energy reserves
Female reproductive system *ovaries *uterine tubes * Uterus *Vagina *Labia *Clitoris * Mammary glands
Function of female reproductive system *Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones *Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery * Provides milk to nourish newborn infant *Sexual intercourse
Body Cavities do what? Protect the internal organs *permits changes in size and shape of internal organs
What are the subdividers of the body cavity? *Ventral body cavity *thoracic cavity
Ventral body cavity Early stage during embryological development * Respiratory,Cardiovascular,digestive,urinary,and reproductive. Serous membrane * Visceral layer *Parietal layer
Serous membrane lines walls of internal cavities/covers enclosed viscera
Visceral layer covers a visceral organ
Parietal layer lines cavity
Thoracic cavity Encloses lungs and heart,associated organs of respiratory,cardiovascular and lymphatic system, inferior portions of esophagus and thymus *Left and right pleural cavity and mediastinum
Pleura serous membranes lining the thorax and enveloping the lungs in humans and other mammals
Abdominopelvic cavity *peritoneal cavity *Parietal peritoneum *Visceral peritoneum *inferior portion * reproductive organs, rectum and bladder
Peritoneal cavity chamber within abdominopelvic cavity
Pariertal peritoneum lines the internal body wall
Visceral peritoneum covers the organs
Abdominal cavity-superior portion *Diaphragm to top of pelvic bones *contains digestive organs * Retroperitoneal space *Area posterior to peritoneum and anterior to muscular body wall *Contains pancreas, kidneys, ureters and parts of the digestive tract
Homeo- unchanging
-stasis standing
Homeostasis *Autoregulated/intrinsic regulation *Extrinsic regulation
Autoregulation/intrinsic regulation *Automatic response in a cell,tissue or organ to some environmental change.Ex:oxygen levels decline-blood vessels dilate-increase of blood flow
Extrinsic regulation From nervous system or endocrine system controls activites of many other systems simultaneously
Homeostasis Mechanism 1)Receptor 2) Control center 3)Effector
Receptor *sensor *sensitive to particular stimulus
Control center *receives and processes the signal *sends out command
Effector responds to command * opposes or enhances stimulus
Role of negative feedback Response of the effector negates the stimulus * Body is brought back into homeostasis * Normal range is achieved Primary mechanism of homeostasis
Role of positive feedback The response of the effector increases change of the stimulus *Body is moved away from homeostasis *Normal range is lost * used to speed up processes
System Integration systems work together to maintain homeostasis *opposing forces are in balance *heat loss=Heat production
Dynamic equilibrium continual adaptation-physiological systems work to restore balance-failure results in disease or death
Created by: gummybear26
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