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Exam 1 Study Guide

What is anatomy? The structure of body parts and their relationship with one another.
What are the Subdivisions of Anatomy. Gross (microscopic), Regional, Systemic, Surface, microscopic, developmental, embryology
Define Gross Anatomy. (Microscopic) the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye... i.e. heart/lungs/kidneys
Define Regional Anatomy. all the structures (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc) in a particular region of the body are examined at the same time.
Define systemic anatomy body structure is studied system by system.
Define Surface Anatomy the study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.
Microscopic anatomy deals with structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.
cytology study of cells in the body.
Histology study of tissues
Developmental anatomy traces structural changes that occur throughout the life span
Embryology subdivision of developmental anatomy,, concerns developmental changes that occur before birth
What is physiology? concerns the function of the body, in other words, how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities.
Name the subdivisions of physiology. Renal, Neurophysiology, Cardiovascular.
Define renal physiology. concerns kidney function and urine production.
Define Neurophysiology explains the workings of the nervous system.
Define Cardiovascular physiology examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels.
What are the levels of organization? Chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level.
Define chemical level. Atoms combine to form molecules.
Define cellular level cells are made up of molecules
Define tissue level tissues consist of similar types of cells
Define organ level organs are made up of different types of tissues
Define organ system level organ systems consist of different organs that work toghether closely.
Define organismal level the human organism is made up of many organ systems.
Describe the Integumentary system. forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues from injury. synthesizes vitamin D. and houses cutaneous receptors and sweat and oil glands.
Describe the Skeletal System protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. blood cells are formed within bones and the bones store minerals.
Describe the muscular system allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. maintains posture, and produces heat.
Describe the nervous system as the fast acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.
describe the endocrine system glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells.
describe the cardiovascular system blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. the heart pumps blood.
Describe the lymphatic system/immunity picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream and houses white blood cells involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.
Describe the respiratory system. keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
Describe the digestive system. breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to cody cells. indigestivle foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
Describe the urinary system eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. regulates water, electrolyte, and acid base balance of the food.
Describe the Male/Female reproductive system Overall function is production of offspring
Name the necessary life functions and survival needs. Maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth
Homeostasis and how it is controlled. ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously. it is controlled by endocrine systems through neural electrical impules or bloodborne hormones. (variable, receptor, control center, effector)
Describe Negative feedback. the output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity. (think air conditioner)
Describe Positive feedback Response to the stimulus is enhanced or exaggerated rather than opposed
Created by: 100000791562417