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Chapter 3-5 Anatomy

Integumentary system, Musculoskeletal system, Cardiovascular system

TermDefinition
Integumentary System Skin, hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands
albin/o white
bi/o life
cry/o cold
cutane/o skin
cyan/o blue
derm/o skin dermat/o
diaphr/o profuse sweating
electr/o electricricity
erythr/o red
hidr/o sweat
icthy/o scaly, dry
kerat/o hard, horney
leuk/o white
lip/o fat
melan/o black
myc/o fungus
necr/o death
onych/o nail
pil/o hair
phot/o light
py/o pus
rhytid/o wrinkle
-derma skin
-opsy view
-tome instrument used to cut
allo- other, different
xeno- strange, foreign
scler/o hard
seb/o oil
trich/o hair
ungu/o nail
vesic/o bladder
xer/o dry
Apocrine sweat gland, regulates internal temp, has an odor, opens into the hair follicles located in pubic, anal, and mammary areas
Subaceous oil gland, produces sebum which lubricates the surface of the skin, has no odor.
Epidermis outer most layer of the skin, lowest layer is the Basal layer which contains melanocytes and blood vessels
Melanocyte part of the basal layer of the epidermis. produces black pigment called melanin
Melanin black color pigment of the skin
Dermis middle layer of the skin, also called "true skin" or Corium. Contains blood vessels.
Corium dermis
Subcutaneous (Sub-q) also called Hypodermis, inner most layer of the skin. comprised of fatty tissue called Lipocytes to insulate the body.
Lypocyte fatty tissue of the hypodermis (subcutaneous) layer of the skin
Dermatitis inflammation of the skin
Dermatology/ Dermatologist study of the skin/ skin specialist
Dermaplasty surgical repair of the skin, skin graft
anhidrosis abnormal condition of no sweat
necrosis abnormal condition of death
erythroderma red skin
leukoderma white skin
pyoderma pus skin
contusion injury caused by a blow; swelling, bruising, and pain
cyanosis blueish skin tint caused by deoxygenated blood
ecchymosis a bruise; blood collecting under skin
erythema red flushing of skin, more permanent
hirsutism excessive hair growth
petechiae spots from minute hemorrhages under the skin
purpura skin hemorrhage due to fragile blood vessles
lasceration torn or jagged wound
macule flat, discolored spot on skin. birthmark
nodule firm, solid mass larger than 0.5 cm
papule small, solid raised spot smaller than 0.5 cm
pediculosis lice infestation
alopecia absence or loss of hair
furuncle bacterial infection of the hair follicle. a boil
C&S culture and sensitivity: test to grow bacteria to identify and sensitivity to antibiotics
allograft skin graft from another person
autograft skin graft from ones self
dermatome instrument used for cutting skin or for producing thin transplants of skin
dermoplasty skin grafting
BX, bx biopsy- removal of tissue for pathology exam
First degree burn reddened, minor swelling, painful, no blister, located on the epidermis
Second degree burn reddened, painful, blisters, burned through to the dermis layer, adema
Third degree burn Charred, no pain, burned through to the subcutaneous layer exposing the lypocyte
Skeletal System bones and joints. Supports, protects internal organs, stores minerals, and produces blood cells
ankyl/o stiff joint
arthr/o joint articul/o
burs/o sac
carp/o wrist
cervic/o neck
chondr/o cartilage
clavicul/o clavicle
coccyg/o coccyx
cortic/o outer portion
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
femor/o femur
fibul/o fibula
ili/o ilium
ischi/o ischium
kyph/o hump
lamin/o lamina vertebra
lord/o bent backwards
lumb/o loin
mandibul/o mandible, chin
maxill/o maxilla
medull/o inner portion
metacarp/o metacarpals
metatars/o metatarsals
myel/o bone marrow
orth/o straight
oste/o bone pod/o
patell/o patella
ped/o foot
pelv/o pelvis
phalang/o phalanges
pub/o pubis
radi/o radius
sacr/o sacrum
scapul/o scapula
scoli/o crooked, bent
stern/o sternum
synovi/o synovial membrane synov/o
tars/o ankle
thorac/o thoracic, chest
tibi/o tibia
uln/o ulna
vertebr/o vertebra
-blast immature, embryonic
-clasia to break surgically
-desis stabilize, fuse
-listhesis slipping
-porosis porous
Long bones longer than they are wide, most common bone in body, ulna, femur
short bones almost same length to width, carpals, tarsals
flat bones plate shaped bones, sternum, pelvis
irregular bones vertebrae
Diaphysis central shaft to a long bone
Epiphysis wide ends of a long bone. Distal is farthest from attachment, proximal is closest to attachment to body
Cancellous bone spongy bone, produces red blood cells from red bone marrow
Axial Skeleton head, neck, spine, chest, trunk
Appendicular Skeleton pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, upper, and lower extremities
Vertebral Column Cervical (7 vertebra), Thoracic (12 vertebra), Lumbar (5 vertebra), Sacrum (5 fused vertebra), Coccyx (3-5 fused vertebra)
Name the bones in the body starting from the Skull including vertebral column. Skull, vertebrae. clavicle, scapula, ribs, sternum, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, pelvic girdle, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges. Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx.
Joint types synovial, cartilaginous, fibrous.
Synovial a type of joint, the most common in the body. free moving.
arthralgia joint pain
arthrocentesis puncture to withdraw fluid from joint
arthrodesis fusion of a joint
anthrogram record of a join
arthritis joint inflammation
arthroscope instrument to view joint
chiropractic practice of treating a patient using manipulations of the vertebral column.
kyphosis abnormal curve in thoracic spine, humpback
lordosis abnormal curve in lumbar of spine, swayback, common in pregnant women
orthopedics branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of the musculoskeletal system.
closed fracture simple fracture, fracture with no open skin wound
Colles' fracture a common wrist fracture
comminuted fracture fracture where bone is shattered, splintered, or crushed
compound fracture fracture with an open skin wound, open fracture
compression fracture fracture with loss of height in vertebral column; often from osteoporosis
FX, Fx fracture- broken bone
greenstick fracture incomplete break
impacted fracture bone fragments are pushed onto eachother
oblique fracture fracture at an angle to the bone
pathologic fracture fracture caused by disease or weakened bone
spiral fracture fracture spiral around shaft of bone, often slower to heal
stress fracture slight fracture caused by low-impact forces such as running
transverse fracture complete fracture, fracture straight across bone
rickets caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency resulting in bone deformities
OA osteoarthritis- degeneration of bones and joints; bone rubbing on bone
RA rheumatoid arthritis- autoimmune inflammation of the joints causing pain, swelling, stiffness, resulting in deformities
arthroscopy viewing the interior of a joint using an arthroscope
Muscular System skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, cardiac muscles
Skeletal muscles Fascia
Cardiac muscles myocardium
fasic/o fibrous band
fibr/o fibers
kinesi/o movement
my/o muscle muscul/o myos/o
plant/o sole of foot
tendin/o tendon ten/o tend/o
-asthenia weakness
-kinesia movement
-tonia tone
ab- away from
ad- towards
circum- around
abduction movement away from midline of body
adduction movement towards midline of body
dorsiflexion backward bending foot
plantar flexion bending foot towards sole, pointing toes "plant your foot on the pedal"
myalgia muscle pain
myocardial heart muscle
myorhhaphy suture a muscle
myorhhexis muscle rupture
-rhhexis rupture
-rrhaphy suture
-rrhea discharge, flow
-rrhage abnormal flow, excessive
bradykinesia slow movement
fibromyalgia widespread pain to muscles and soft tissue. ("garbage" diagnosis)
Cardiovascular System Heart, arteries, capillaries, veins,
Layers of the Heart Pericardium (outer fluid filled sack), Epicardium (first layer of muscle tissue), Myocardium (major middle layer of muscle), Endocardium (thin inner most muscle layer).
angi/o vessels
aort/o aorta
arteri/o artery
ather/o fatty substance
atri/o atrium
cardi/o heart
coron/o heart
hemangi/o blood vessel
phleb/o vein
sphygm/o pulse
steth/o chest
thromb/o clot
valvul/o valve valv/o
vascul/o blood vessel
vas/o vessel, duct
ventricul/o ventricular
-manometer instrument to measure pressure
-ole small
-tension pressure
-ule small
Systemic Circulation Carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the body and oxygenated blood from the heart to the body.
Pulmonary Circulation Carries deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs and oxygenated blood from lungs to heart.
Atria Superior and inferior vena cava, and pulmonary veins
Ventricles Aorta and pulmonary artery.
Heart Valves tricuspid, bicuspid (Mitral), and aortic.
Tricuspid Valve Located between the right atrium and right ventricle.
Mitral Valve Located between the left atrium and left ventricle.
Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker. Controls the electrical impulses in the heart.
Path of Blood Flow 1. R. atrium via superior/inferior vena cava 2. tricuspid to R.ventricle. 3. pulmonary artery to lung. 4. L.atrium via pulmonary veins. 5. Mitral to L.ventricle 6. aortic valve to body
Types of Blood Vessels arteries, capillaries, veins. *Lumen is channel blood flows through
Arteries carry blood away from heart. Thick walled *coronary arteries supply blood for the heart.
Capillaries tiny thin walled vessels, connects arteries to veins
Veins carries blood to heart. contains valves to ensure blood passes only towards heart.
Venules Smallest vein in body
BP blood pressure.
Systole highest pressure value in a BP reading
Diastole lowest pressure value in a BP reading
angiogram record of a vessel
angiostenosis narrowing of a vessel
bradycardia abnormally slow heartbeat (rate)
electrocardiogram/graphy record of the hearts electrical impulses/ process of. (EKG, ECG)
cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart
cardiologist/ology heart specialist/ study of the heart
tachycardia abnormally fast heartbeat (rate)
venogram record of a vein
auscultation listening to the bodies sounds using a stethoscope
palpitations pounding, racing heartbeats
arrhythmia irregularity in the heartbeat
cardiac arrest heart completely stops
CHF congestive heart failure- L. ventricle is too weak to efficiently pump blood to the body
CAD coronary artery disease- poor blood supply to myocardium due to coronary obstruction, causes angina pectoris, and myocardial infarction
Angina Pectoris severe pain and sensation of constriction around the heart
firbrillarion quivering of the heart muscle
MI myocardial infarction- heart attack
myocarditis inflammation of the heart muscle
pericarditis inflammation of the pericardial sac
aneurysm weakness in the artery wall
embolus a thrombus (blood clot) the has broken off and is moving through the veins
hemorrhoid varicose veins of the anal region
HTN hypertension- high blood pressure
thrombus blood clot within a blood vessel, stationary.
varicose veins swollen and distended veins.
Stress test treadmill test. evaluate cardio fitness
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
AED automated external defibrillator
Cicatrix Scar
Tinea Capitis ring worm
reduction process of re-aligning bone fragments
EMG electromyography- diagnostic test for heart muscle function
dual- energy absorptiometry used to diagnose osteoporosis
akinesia lack of movement
infarct area of tissue that dies from necrosis
Cardiac Scan Thallum is injected during xrays to view the heart.
pruritus sever itching
subluxation incomplete dislocatoin
talipes clubfoot
cardiomyopathy disease of the heart tissue and heart muscle
-dynia pain
jaundice yellowish skin and eyes
keloid raised red scar tissue
psysiatrist physical therapist
pulse expansion and contraction of artery wall
venipuncture blood draw
arterioles small branch of arteries, carries blood to capillaries
circumduction movement in a circular direction from a central point
coccyx tailbone, 3-5 small fused vertebrae. at distal end of vertebral column
keratin hard protein substance produced by body. in hair, nails and filling epidermal cells
os coxae hip bone. consists of ilium, ischium, and pubis
periosteum membrane that covers most bones
sudoriferous sweat glands
sebum oil secreted by the sebaceous glands
Created by: madams7664