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anatomy midterm 1

factors that maintain a resting potential membrane potential 1. unequal distribution of ions in the ECF and cytosol 2. inability of most anions to leave the cell 3. elecrogenic nature of Na/K ATPase
sequence of events that generate an action potential 1.depolarizing phase 2.repolarizing phase
graded potential small deviation from the resting membrane potential that make the membrane wither more polarized of less polarized
where do graded potentials most offten occure dendrites and cell body of neuron
ionotropic receptor ion channels that directly bind to the neurotransmitter
metabotropic receptors are G proteins that bind to the neurotransmitter but are not the ion channel. instead, the binding protein initiates ion flow through with in another protein
2 classes or neurotransmitters small-molecule neurtransmitter, neuropeptides
three meninges outermost-dura mater middle-arachnoid mater innermost- pia mater
how many pairs of spinal nerves 31, 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
posterior root contains sensory nerve fibers and conduct nerve impulses from the periphery into the spinal cord; the posterior root ganglion contains the cell bodies of the sensory neurons from the periphery
anterior root contains motor neuron axons that conduct impulses from the spinal cord to the periphery; the cell bodies of motor neurons are located in the gray matter of the cord
what does the gray matter primarily consist of cell bodies of neurons and neuroglia and unmyelinated axons and dendrites of association and motor neurons
what does the white matter primarily consist of bundles of myelinated axons of motor and sensory neurons
axon connective tissue sheaths a fiber is a single axon with in an endoneurium, a fascicle is a bundle of fibers within a perineurium, a nerve is a bundle of fascicles within an epineurium
five functional components of a reflex arc receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center neuron, motor neuron, effector
ipsilateral same side
what does the blood brain barrier do protects brain cells from harmful substances and pathogens by serving as a selective barrier to prevent passage of many substances from the blood to the brain
electrical synapse ionic current spreads to next cell though gap junctions, faster, two-way transmition and capable of synchronizing groups of neurons
chemical synapse one-way information transfer from a presynaptic neuron to a postsynaptic neuron.
nerve 1, name, classification, function olfactory, sensory, smell
nerve 2, name, classification, function optic, sensory, vision
nerve 3, name, classification, function oculomotor, motor, eye movement and pupil dilation
nerve 4, name, classification, function trochlear, motor, eye movement
nerve 5, name, classification, function trigeminal, mixed, sensory-touch on face, corneal reflex, motor-muscles of mastication
nerve 6, name, classification, function abducens, motor, eye movement
nerve 7, name, classification, function facial, mixed, sensory-taste, motor-facial muscles, corneal reflex
nerve 8, name, classification, function vestibulocochlear, sensory, balance and hearing
nerve 9, name, classification, function glossopharyngeal, mixed, sensory-taste gag reflex, motor-elevates pharynx during speech
nerve 10, name, classification, function vagus, mixed, sensory-taste, motor-parasympathic to visceral organs, gag reflex
nerve 11, name, classification, function accessory, motor, muscles of neck and upper back
nerve 12, name, classification, function hypoglossal, motor, tongue movement
what does CSF do? absorbs shock and protects the brain and spinal cord, helps transport nutrients and wastes from the blood and nervous tissue
what is the major secretory site for CSF choriod plexus
centers of the medulla oblongata vital centers-cardiovascular and respiratory centers, other centers-vomiting, swollowing, sneezing, coughing, and hiccuping
functions of cerebellum anterior and posterior lobes coordinate movements, regulate posture; flocculonodular lobe coordinates balance
parts of the midbrain substantia nigra, red nucleus, reticular activating system
substantia nigra large area with dark pigments, help control subconscious muscle activities. loss of neurons here is associated with Parkinson's disease
red nucleus help control voluntary movements of the limbs
reticular activating system (RAS) consists of sensory axons that project to the cerebral cortex. helps maintain consciousness
Thalamus intermediate mass, contains several nuclei, major relay station for most sensory impulses, major relay for intracerebral and cerebro-cerebellar association
hypothalamus inferior to the thalamus, consists of mammillary body, median eminence, infundibulum, and a number of nuclei
functions of hypothalamus control of ANS (many viseromotor functions integration with other expressed behaviors) control release of pituitary hormones, regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns, eating and drinking, body temp. and circadia rhythms
central sulcus separates frontal and parietal lobes
precentral gyrus primary motor area
postcentral gyrus primary somatosensory area
function of pons relays nerve impulses related to voluntary skeletal movements from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum
function of midbrain conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and spinal cord, sends sensory impulses from the spinal cord to the thalamus and regulates auditory and visual reflexes
corpus collosum a bundle of transverse white fibers where internal communication between hemispheres occurs
function of basal ganglia help initiate and terminate body movements
functions of limbic system functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory, and is associated with pleasure and pain
two main routes in spinal cord white matter sensory input travels posterior column and the spinothalamic tract
the three primary vesicles proenchephalon, mesenchephalon, rhombencephalon
the second brain vesicles the proenchephalon develops into the telecephalon and diencephalon. the rhombencephalon develops into the metencephalon and the myelencephalon
what parts of the brain to each of the 5 vesicles form teleceohalon-cerebral hemisphere lateral ventricles. diencephalon-thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus third ventricle. mesencephalon-midbrain aqueduct. metencephalon-cerebellum upper 4th ventricle. myelencephalon-medulla oblongata, lower 4th ventricle
Created by: adam87