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Historic Educational Figures

Lloyd P Jorgenson Revealed prejudiced side of common school movement. "Spirit of Nativism"
Bernard Bailyn Described 20th century educators as missionaries
Ellwood Cubberly Supported state control of democratic school systems. Involved in New Deal, served as Superintendent of S.D. schools
Robert Breckenridge Writings influenced no public funding for Catholic schools
Horace Mann Established MA State Board of Education. Increased school year to 6 mo. Argued for common standards
John Joseph Hughes demanded public funding for Catholic schools but was unsuccessful. Helped establish secularization of public schools
Catherine Beecher Believed in higher education for women
Booker T. Washington Founder of Tuskegee Institute
W.E. Dubois Contested Booker T. Washington's beliefs. 1st African American to obtain PhD
John Dewey Believed ideas should be founded in experience and that education should be based on child's psychological and physical development
Albert Shanker Head of American Federation of Teachers (Union). Led NY Strike
E.D. Hirsh, Jr. Leading voice in Back to Basics Movement. Believed students are taught "what", not "how" to think.
Deborah Meier Revitalized schools in NY's East Harlem. Founded highly successful Alternative Elementary school
Theodore Sizer Leader of educational reform. "Horace's Compromise", suggested students behave in exchange for not being punished.
Carl Kaestle Historian with 2 observations. 1) Free schools were charity schools for poor. 2) Expansion of charity into public schools did not increase % of urban schools attending.
Vygotsky Social Development Theory-children's development must precede learning. Development varies across cultures. Zone of Proximal Development
Piaget Cognitive Learning Theory-children's learning must precede development. Development is universal. 3 Components. 1) Schemas 2) Adaptation processes (equilibrium, assimilation, accommodation. 3) Stages of Development
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