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WVSOM -- Medial Neuroanatomy Olfactory and Visual Pathways

What is anosmia? no smell
What is hyposmia? decreased function
What is cacosmia? hallucinatinoof unpleasant smells (aka: uncinate fit before seizure)
How often is the mucosa replaced on olfactory epithelium? every 10 minutes
Where are olfactory receptors? dendrites of neurons that extend into the mucosa
How are olfactory receptors activated? depolaraize the first order neurons in the olfactory pathway
What kind of neurons are the first order neurons? bipolar neurons
Where is the first synapse? olfactory bulb
What happens in the olfactory bulb? first order neurons synapse on the second order neutrons
What are the second order neurons in the olfactory tract called? mitral cells
How many first order neurons compared to second order neuron? a lot more first order neurons. 4-5 first order neurons synapse on second order neurons
What does the olfactory tract split into? lateral and medial olfactory stria
What does the lateral olfactory project to? pyriform and entorhinal regions of the cerebral cortex and the amygdale
Where does the medial olfactory stria project to? projects to the contra-lateral olfactory bulb via the anterior commissure
Where does the olfactory tract go to? telencephalon
Is the thalamus involved with olfaction? no
What are the layers of the eye from outermost to innermost? sclera, choroid, retina
What is the innermost layer of the eye? Retina
What is the outmost layer of the retina? 1
What is the innermost layer of the retina? 10
How many layers of the retina are there? 10
What is layer one of the retina? pigment epithelium filled with melanin to absorb light
What do cones do? absorb color; light
What do rods do? low light vision
What does layer 2 of the retina do? contains the receptor portion of rods and cones
What does layer 6 of the retina do? contains the cell bodies of horizontal, bipolar and amacrine neurons
What does layer 8 of the retina do? contains the cell bodies of ganglion cells
What does layer 9 do? contains the axons of the ganglion cells; they become the optic nerve
What do the ganglion neurons do? project axons that become the optic nerve
What do bipolar neurons in the eye do? link between the receptor neurons and the ganglion neurons
What are the amacrine and horizontal neurons? interneurons in the retina that make synapses on other neurons…involved in processing
What are the two area of specialization in the retina? optic disk and fovea centralis
What is the fovea centralis? an area of the retina conaining only cones. The upper retinal layers are shifted to the side at the fovea so that light may hit the photoreceptors here without any distortion.
What is at the optic disk? a blind spot…no optic cells at all
What is the macula lutea? area with no vasculature where the fovea is
What is the central visual pathway? produces vision
What are the two pupillary pathways? one ot the iris (pupil constriction and one to ciliary body (lens accommodation)
What is the visual association pathway? superior colliculus
What is the reticular pathway? produces alterness
What is the hypothalamic pathway? circadian rhythm
Where do all visual pathways start? retinal photoreceptors
What are the first order neurons in the eye? bipolar neurons
What are the second order neurons in the eye? ganglion neurons
Where is the optic chiasm? just anterior to the infundibulum
What is the optic chiasm? a decussation of optic fibers
What continues past the optic chiasm? optic tracts
What information does each optic tract carry? information from the contralateral visualfriends.
Where does the optic tract run to? lateral geniculate body, pretectal area, superior colliculus, reticular formation and suprachiasmatic nucleus
What is the central visual pathway? conveys visual information to the cerebral cortex to produce the visual perception
Where do 80% of the fibers of the optic tract synapse? lateral geniculate body
What layers of the lateral geniculate body receive axons from the ipsilateral eye? layers 2,3 and 5
Where do axons of the controlateral eye go in the lateral geniculate body? 1,4 and 6
Where are 3rd order neurons in the optic pathway? neurons in the lateral geniculate body
Where do third order neurons project to? primary visual cortex
What divides the occipital lobe horizontally? calcarine fissure
Where is the primary visual corex? calcarine fissure
What is the geniculcalcarine tract? third order neurons going from the lateral geniculate body to the calcarine fissure
What is meyer’s loop? geniculocalcarine tract
What is agnosia? inability to recognize objects
What is prospagnosia? inability to recognize faces (right occipitoparetal corex)
What does V1 of the occipital lobe do? visual awareness
What does V2 of the occipital lobe do? segregation of the viusal info
What does V3 of the occipital lobe do? form
What does v4 of the occipital lobe do? color
What does V5 of the occipital lobe do? movement
Created by: tjamrose