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Anatomy Chapter 2

chemistry structure and interactions of matter
matter anything that occupies space and has mass
mass amount of matter
weight force of gravity acting on a mass
what are the three types of matter? 1. solid 2. liquid 3. gas
solid compact with definitive shape and volume (bones,teeth)
liquid definite volume and assume the shape of their container (blood plasma)
gas no shape no volume (CO2)
What elements make up majority of the human body? 1. C-carbon 2. O-oxygen 3. H-hydrogen 4. N-nitrogen
what are chemical symbols? names of elements
the three types of elements? 1. lesser 2. trace 3. Major
atoms smallest units that retain the properties and characteristics of an element
what are the subatomic particles? 1. protons 2. electrons 3. neurons
first electron shell can hold 2 e-
second electron (valence) shell outermost shell can hold 8 e-
atomic # # of protons
mass # # of protons and neurons
isotopes have identical chemical properties
chemical property determined by electrons
atomic mass average mass of all its isotopes (neutrons+protons)
dalton unit of measurement assigned to the weight of a neutron, proton and electron
ion atom that has gained or lost an electron
molecule 2 or more atoms share electrons
compound substance that contains different elements
free radical an atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in the outermost shell
antioxidants fight free radicals
octet rule two or more atoms bond to share a total of 8 valence electrons
three types of chemical bonds 1. ionic 2. covalent 3. hydrogen
electrolytes positive and negative ions in a salt break apart
cation a positively charged ion
anion a negatively charged ion
covalent bond to cohabitate the same valence shell( the more pairs the stronger the bong)
polar sharing of electrons is not equal (2 poles) (H2O)
nonpolar two atoms share electrons equally
Hydrogen Bonds 2 other atoms associate with a hydrogen atom. form between C & H
surface tension how difficult it is to stretch or break the attraction of H bonds
chemical reactions new bonds are formed or old bonds are broken
reactants starting substance
products ending substance
metabolism all chemical reactions in body
forms of energy and Chemical reactions 1. potential 2. kinetic 3. chemical
potential energy stored energy
kinetic energy energy released during motion
chemical energy stored in bonds
endergonic energy stored energy inside
exergonic energy energy released or going out
can energy be destroyed or created? is can only be converted from one form to another. conversion release heat
activation energy the collision energy needed to disrupt the valence shell and break a new bond
law of conservation energy the participants dont change (product,reactant)-the arrangement does
concentration the more particles present the more likely they are to collide.
temperature particles move faster when heated; which causes them to collide and disrupt valence shell
catalyst lowers the amount of activation energy required to start reaction; turn particles to face one another's collision spots
synthesis 2 or atoms combine to form new and larger molecules ; A+ B = AB
Decomposition breaking down of larger molecules into smaller ones; AB break down into A+B
Exchange both composition and decompostion reactions; AB+CD= AD+BC
Reversible products can revert back to reactants; AB breaks down or combines to form A+B
Oxidation reduction OIL RIG O= loss R=gain
inorganic compounds lack carbon: water is the most important
organic compounds always have carbon, usually have hydrogen
solution combination of solvent and solution
solvent dissolves another substance
solute thing being dissolved
hydrolysis reaction allows dietary nutrients to break apart in body
dehydration synthesis allow body to build larger molecules
mixture elements that are physically blended but not bonded
types of mixtures 1. solution 2. colloid 3. suspension
types of chemical reactions 1. synthesis 2. decomposition 3. exchange 4. reversible
colloid solute+ solvent, large particles that scatter (milk, fog)
suspension solute+solvent, will settle on bottom (RBCs)
percentage estimated amount of solute in a solution
moles per liter (molarity) total number of molecules in a solution
mole unit of measure related to atomic mass
dissociation dissolving acids, bases or salts in water
acidosis PH below 7.35
alkalosis PH above 7.35
buffers convert strong acids or bases into weak ones
carbohydrates chemical energy;
deoxiribose used structurally in DNA
polysaccharides sugar in its stormed form
fatty acids one carboxyl group and hydrogen chain
saturated vs. unsaturated single carbon bond vs one or more double carbon bond
monounsaturated vs polyunsaturated one double bond vs many double carbon bonds
triglycerides single glycerol head attached to three fatty acid tails (fats and oils); 2X energy per gram as carbs or protein
Four levels of protein organization 1. primary (flat) 2. secondary (spiral or beta sheet) 3. tertiary ( three polypeptide chain 4. quaternaty (more than one peptide)
Created by: mytoia05
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