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Stack #195475

~Mecca city, Muhammad, pilgrimage of hajj
~Medina New city, Mecca renamed, moved
~Sultan holder of power, taken over Baghdad
~Caliph successor, Abu Bakr
~5Pillars Belief, Prayer, Charity, Fasting, Pilgrimage
~Battle of Tours encouraged success in Spain/Arab armies
~Muhammad received revelations from God and was God's prophet
~Abu Bakr became leader after Muhammad's death
~In Sina scientist/philosopher wrote first medical encyclopedia
~Umayyad Dynasty Damascus was capital, over thrown by Abbasid dynasty
~Abbasid Dynasty under which Baghdad became capital
~Seljuk Turks target of first crusade
~Mongols Genghis khan ruled them. Constant feuding for power/Kublai khan, Batu Khan.
~Lineage group communities of extended family units
~Bantu Family of languages
~Kush provided iron products, taken over by Auximite rulers
~Axum Invaded and conquered Kush in 4th century AD Traded importat goods
~King Ezana Invaded and conquered Kush, Auximite ruler
~Mali traded gold ans alt, Captured Ghana capital
~Sundiata Keita King of the mali empire
~Mansa Musa grandnephew of Sundieta Keita, important to rule of mali because during his time the empire flourished
~Songhai a great trading empire by Sunni Ali
~Sunni Ali makes Sonhai a great trading empire in 1464
~Samurai member of the hereditary warrior class in feudal Japan
~Shogun the title applied to the chief military commanders from about the 8th(head of centralized government)
~Bushido warrior code ('the way of the warrior')
~Shinto religion ("the Sacred ways")
~Tang Dynasty Restored the civil service exam, expanded borders, over thrown by Uighurs
~Song Dynasty Moved imperial court south for protection from the turkic
~Mongol empire/dynasty Kublai Khan, Khan city, ended with plague(Yuan dynasty) Zhu Yuanzhang raised army ended Monogol Dynasty
~Genghis Khan founded mongol empire(Temujin was first name, changed after becoming ruler)
~Ghazna(Ghazni) City once devastated by Genghis Khan, thriving with buddism
~Mahmud of ghazni first ruler to carry the "sultan" title
~Timur Lenk military, conquered much land
~Feudalism several rulers instead of one central government
~Vassal someone who provides protection or military aid, and in return receives land from the nobles known as fiefs
~Magna Carta 1215, english charter, lowered rights of king, signed by king John
~Monasticism practiced by monks
~Fief consisted of inheritable lands or revenue
~Serf unfree peasant under feudalism, worked farm land
~Constantinople City, Byzantine empire
~Justinian Code religion and laws converted to Latin during Byzantine Empire
~Crusades military campaigns run by Christian Europe mainly against Muslims, torture, court
~Frankish Kingdom Territory lived on by Franks, changed empires numerous times
~Monks dedicated their lives to God, live in monk communities, monasticisms, saint benedict
~St. Benedict Benedictine rules for monks
~Charles the Great King of Franks for a period of time, expanded the territory greatly, 768
~William of Normandy king of England and Duke of Normandy
~Henry II grandson of william of normandy, ruler of England and Normandy at short time periods
~King Philip II Augustus expanded french territory and defeated English in Normandy and other places
~Holy Roman Empire founded on Frankish land, Otto I gave Pope protection and was granted King of the Romans
~Byzantine Empire Constantinople was capital, part of Holy Roman Empire(basically another name??)
~Justinian Western Roman Empire revival....didn't work, long line of Byzantine empire emperors
~Pope Urban II bribed his way to being Pope, dream of "Christian empire" this empire would be ruled by him(atlantic to holy land)
~Alexius I Emperor of Byzantine Empire, Eastern Orthodox leader, wanted to help Urban II with his dream
~Slavs Eastern Orthodox was accepted, Poland, morovia. Serbia...
~Manor land under manorialism
~Commercial Capitalism replaced feudalism, used like money instead of bartering
~Papal States church gained control of territies in central itlay
~Inquisition Pope innocent the 3(stop heresy in the South of France and Italy) 2nd religious imps of the black death(thought it was the heretics, the state killed this people that weren't apart of the church)
~New Monarchies Henry VII of England
~Black Death plague to which had been started by rats and rat bites
~Heretic someone who chooses to believe; teach, or do something contrary to the beliefs of a set group, religion, or country
~Cistercians group of monks started this order because they were unhappy with the lack of discpline of their Benedictine monestary
~Franciscans founded by Francis of Assisi, abandoned material goods, poverty
~Dominicans examiners of people suspected of heresy, founded by Dominic de Guzman, wanted to defend the Church teachings against heresy
~Romanesque style barrel vaulted roofs, massive pillars and walls to support roofs
~Gothic style ripped and pointed arches, flying buttresses, windows, more light
~Pope Gregory VII Chosen by God to reform church, power over christian kindoms (he claimed) appoint clergy and run church affairs with no interference from lords, lords against him would be replaced
~Henry IV Germany, Henry opposed Gregory about decreees of forbidding clerics from receiving their offices from secular leaders, he was excommunicated...twice
~Francis of Assisi spiritual awakening, love and simplicity, gave up material goods, and lived and preache din poverty
~Milan Land locked city state, one of the richest city-states
~Venice independent city, between asia and europe, GREAT trading
~Florence independent city, dominated Tuscany, waged wars, won many, strong and dominent
~Rome Center of Catholic church during history
~Secular worldly viewpoint
~mercenaries soldiers who sold services to highest bidder
~Dowry money goods, or estate a women brings to marriage
~Renaissance cultural movement from 14th century to 17th century
~Leonardo da Vinci Artist/scientist/inventor, "military genius"
~Cosimo controlled Florence
~Lorenzo de' Medici dominated Florence
~Niccolo wrote book "The Prince", political pwer
~Johannes Gutenberg first to use movable type printer, goldsmith
~Humanism broad category of ethical philosophies, imitation of nature amd human focused world view
~Vernacular variety
~Fresco painting done on plastered ceilings/walls
~Dante Comedian
~Chaucer "The Canterbury Tales" author/poet
~Michelangelo sculpeter/painter/architect, Sistine Chapel of Rome
~Raphael Painted many virgin Mary's, Frescoes of Vatican Palace, School of Athens
~Christian humanism belief that human freedom and individualism are intrinsic (natural) parts of life
~Salvation saved from suffering
~Indulgence temporary punishment for sins that have been forgiven
~Edict of Worms addressed luther and the protestant reformation
~Ninety Five Theses Written by martin Luther, protestant reformation
~Bohemia Austrian lands
~Hungary Austrian lands
~Peace of Augsburg Treaty between Charles V and Lutheran princes
~Martin Luther Father of Protestantism, German reformation, different domination of the Church
~Eramus pure Latin writer, Rose questions on the Protestant reformation
~Charles V outlawed Luther and his followers
~Predestination decision to where you will go in after life under christianity
~Annul get rid of
~Anabaptists Christians of the Radical reformation
~Jesuits Roman Catholic religious order, founder Ignatius of Loyola
~Calvin founded the theological approach to the Christian religion
~Henry VIII excommunicated for divorce, ended up back in the church
~Mary I of England (Bloody Mary) bestard child of Henry VIII, tudor dynasty, 4th
~Ignatius of Loyola founder of the "Society of Jesus", Jesuits
~Aramada navy/fleet
~Huguenots members of the prostestant reform church of France
~Edict of Nantes Granted the calvinists and protestants the right to worship in public
~English Channel
~Philip II
~Spanish Netherlands
~Elizabeth Tudor 2nd daughter, fourth child of Henry VII, Queen for some time.
~Henry of Navarre Changed his religion from Calvinism to Catholicism, King at one point
~Absolutism absolute power to the king
~Divine Right of Kings much like absolutism, religion and political power for kings
~Puritans religious sect to which believe the reformation did not go far enough
~Toleration Act gave protestants and other sect a place of worship, legally
~Thirty Years War religious war between protestants and catholics
~New Model Army formed during English Civil war
~Malleus Maleficarum book for the banning and finding of witches, second selling to the bible
~James I King of England for a while, protestant
~Charles I advocated to the Divine Right of Kings, got into a brawl with parliament over the subject
~Oliver Cromwell commander in New model Army, puritan, ended Parliament and headed a military dictatorship
~William of Orange Invaded England after being invited by English Nobles
~Boyars member of highest rank after princes during feudalist times
~St. Petersburg
~Louis XIV sun king, did not control thrown until old enough, wanted to be like a god, "Apollo"
~Cardinal Richelieu wanted to make alliance with protestant rulers
~Frederick William the Great Elector ruler of Prussia
~Ivan IV
~Michael Romanov
~Peter the Great ruled Russian Empire, brother was Ivan IV
Created by: kini42pela