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Anatomy Final

Mr. Mathena Anatomy Final-Mastery Tests

Profuse, uncontrolled sweating for no apparent reason is known as hyperhidrosis
Two or more kinds of tissue that work together to perform specialized function make up an organ
List the four major types of membranes. Serous, Mucous, Synovial, and Cutaneous
Serous membranes are lcoated in body cavities that are completely closed to the outside of the body.
Mucous membranes are located in the lining of cavities and tubes that have openings to the outside of the body
The function of synovial membranes is to secrete a fluid that reduces friction
The outer layer of skin is called the epidermis
The inner layer of skin is called the dermis
The masses of connective tissue beneath the inner layers of skin are called the subcutaneous layers (or hypodermis)
The cells of the skin that reproduce are in the stratum basale
The pigment that helps protect the deeper layers of the epidermis is melanin
LIght-complected, fair-haired people have ________ numbers of melanocytes than/as dark-complected, dark-haired people equal
An irregularly shaped, blue-black-colored growth on skin, especially on areas exposed intermittently to high-intensity sunlight, may be a melanoma
Blood vessels are located in the hypodermis (or subcutaneous layer)
The subcutaneous layer functions as a (an) heat insulator
Smooth muscle cells that stand hairs on end in response to cold are known as arrector pili muscles
The glands usually associated with hair follicles are sebaceous glands
Nails are produced by epidermal cells that undergo keratinization
Where are the eccrine sweat glands most numerous forehead, neck and back
The sweat glands associated with regulation of body temperature are the eccrine glands
Which of the following organs produces the most heat? Kidneys, bones, muscles, or lungs? muscles
Sponging the skin with water helps increase the loss of body heat by evaporation
Fibroblasts must migrate into ___ cut to heal the skin defect deep
Study of the human body first began with earliest humans because they were as interested in their body parts and their functions as we are today
What factor set the stage for early knowledge of the human body? the growing experience of medicine men as they treated the sick with herbs and potions
The development of modern science began with: the belief that natural processes were caused by forces that could be understood
What languages form the basis of the language of anatomy and physiology? Latin and Greek
The branch of science that deals with structure of body parts is Anatomy
The branch of science that studies how body parts function is Physiology
The function of a part is (always, sometimes, never) related to its structure. always
List those characteristics that humans share with other organisms Movement, Growth, Assimilation, Digestion, Circulation, Absorption, Excretion, Respiration, Responsiveness, Reproduction
Does statement a explain statement b? Yes
The most abundant chemical in the human body is water
Food is used as a(n) ______ source to build new ___________ ___________ and to participate in the regulation of chemical reactions energy, living matter
Oxygen is used to release energy
An increase in temperature ________ the rate of chemical reactions increases
The action of the heart creates ___________ pressure in the blood vessels. hydrostatic
Homeostasis means maintenance of a stable internal environment
List the levels of organization of the body in order of increasing complexity, beginning with the cell cell, tissue, organs, organ systems, organism
The portion of the body that contains the head, neck, and truck is called the axial portion
The arms and legs are called the appendicular portion
The two major cavities of the axial portion of the body are the dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity
The inferior boundary of the thoracic cavity is the diaphragm
The heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland are located in the _______________, which separates the thoracic cavity into two compartments. mediastinum
List the four body cavities located in the head middle ear, orbital, nasal, oral
The visceral and parietal pleural membranes secrete a serous fluid into a potential space called the pleural cavity
the heart is covered by the __________ membranes pericardial
The peritoneal membranes are located in the __________ cavity abdominopelvic
The covering of the body is made of an organ and various accessory organs known as the ________________ system integumentary
functions of the nervous system integration and coordination
functions of the muscular system support and movement
functions of the circulatory system processing and transporting
functions of the respiratory system processing and transporting
functions of the skeletal system support and movement
functions of the digestive system processing and transporting
functions of the lymphatic system processing and transporting
functions of the endocrine system integration and coordination
functions of the urinary system processing and transporting
functions of the reproductive system reproduction
Which of the following positions of body parts is/are in anatomic position? palms of hands turned toward sides of body, standing erect, arms at side, face toward left shoulder standing erect and arms at side
terms of relative position are used to describe the location of one body part with respect to another
A sagittal section divides the body into right and left portions
The terms epigastric, hypochondriac, and iliac are examples of abdominopelvic regions
The muscle that raises the eyelid is the levator palpebrae superioris
The conjunctiva covers the anterior surface of the eyeball, except for the central portion (cornea)
The superior rectus muscle rotates the eye upward and toward the midline
Te transparency of the cornea is due to the small number of cells and the lack of blood vessels
In the posterior wall of the eyeball, the sclera is pierced by the optic nerve
The shape of the lens changes as the eye focuses on a close object in a process known as accommodation
The anterior chamber of the eye extends from the _______ to the iris cornea
The part of the eye that controls the amount of light entering the eye is the iris
The inner tunic of the eye contains the receptor cells of sight and is called the retinal
The region associated with the sharpest vision is the fovea centralis
The bending of light waves as they pass at an oblique angle from a medium of one optical density to a medium of another optical density is called refraction
The light-sensitive pigment in rods is __________. In the presence of light, this pigment decomposes to form _________ and _________. rhodopsin, opsin, retinal
Some of the fibers of the optic nerves cross within the optic chiasma
the field of tissue engineering uses cells and synthetic materials to fashion human body parts
Cells in a tissue are (similar, dissimilar) similar
The function of epithelial tissue is to cover body surfaces
What are characteristics of epithelia tissue? has no blood vessels, nourished by substances diffusing from connective tissue, and injuries to it heal rapidly as new cells replace damaged cells
Location of simple squamous epithelium air sacs of lungs, walls of capillaries
location of simple cuboidal epithelium lining of the ducts of salivary glands
location of simple columnar epithelium lining of digestive tract
location of pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining of respiratory passages
location of stratified squamous epithelium epidermis of the skin
the inner lining of the urinary bladder and the passageways of the urinary tract are composed of transitional epithelium
A gland that secretes its products into ducts opening into an external or internal surface is called a(n) ___________ gland exocrine
A merocrine gland secretion that is thin, watery, and contains high concentrations of enzymes is called __________ fluid serous
The functions of connect tissue are support, protection, fat storage
Fibroblasts and mast cells found in connective tissue are (fixed, wandering) cells fixed
The connective tissue cells that produce fibers are fibroblasts
The major structural protein of the body and of white connective tissue is collagen
Yellow connective tissue that can be stretched and returned to its original shape is elastic
The cartilage found in the tip of the nose is _____________ cartilage hyaline
The type of cartilage in the intervertebral discs is fibrocartilage
Because of the nature of the blood supply, injured cartilage heals (quickly, slowly) slowly
The most rigid connective tissue is bone
The intercellular material of vascular tissue is blood plasma
The three types of muscle tissue are skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Coordination and regulation of body functions is the function of ________ tissue nervous
The hardest and most enduring human tissue is bone
Which of the following is not an active tissue found in bone? cartilage, cuboidal epithelium, blood, nervous tissue cuboidal epithelium
The shaft of a long bone is the diaphysis
To what part of the bone do tendons and ligaments attach periosteum
Bone that consists mainly of tightly packed tissue is called compact
Bone that consists of numerous branching bony plates separated by irregular spaces is called spongy
The medullary cavity of a long bone is filled with yellow bone marrow
Bones that develop from layers of membranous connective tissue are called intramembranous bones
Bones that develop from masses of hyaline cartilage are called endochondral bones
The band of cartilage between the primary and secondary ossification centers in long bones is called the epiphyseal plate
One bone formation is complete, the bone (remains stable, is remodeled) throughout life is remodeled
The gap between broken ends of a fractured bone is filled by a cartilaginous callous
To accomplish movement, bones and muscles function together to act as levers
Which of the following bones contain red marrow for blood cell formation in a healthy adult? pelvis, small bones of the wrist, ribs, shaft of long bones pelvis, ribs
The bones most often affected by osteoporosis are the hip bones, vertebrae
Which of the following inorganic salts are normally stored in bone? potassium, calcium, lead, chlorine potassium, calcium
The hormone associated with the development of osteoporosis is estrogen
List the major parts of the axial skeleton skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, thoracic cage
List the major parts of the appendicular skeleton Pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs
The only movable bone of the skull is the mandible
The bone that forms the back of the skull and joins the skull along the lambdoidal suture is the ______________ bone occipital
The upper jaw is formed by the _________ bones. maxillary
The membranous areas (soft spots) of an infant's skull are called fontanels
What part of the vertebral column acts as a shock absorber intervertebral disks
Which of the vertebrae support the most weight? lumbar
The functions of the thoracic cage include production of blood cells, contribution to breathing, protection of hear and lungs, support of the shoulder girdle
True ribs articulate with _____________ ________________ and the ____________ thoracic vertebrae, sternum
The pectoral girdle is made of two ____________ and two _____________ clavicles, scapulae
The ___________ crosses over the ulna when the palm of the hand faces backward radius
The wrist consists of 8 carpal bones
When the hands are placed on the hips, they are placed over the iliac crest
The longest bone in the body is the femur
The lower end of the fibula can be felt as an ankle bone. The correct name is the lateral malleolus
Synovial membrane is found in freely movable joints
The function of bursae is to act as shock absorbers, facilitate movement of tendons over bones
The type of joint that permits the widest range of motion is ball-and-socket
Moving the parts at a joint so that the angle between them is increased is called extension
A sleeping position most likely to avoid low back pain is a side lying position
List the tissues found in skeletal muscle skeletal muscle tissue, nervous tissue, blood, connective tissue
An individual skeletal muscle is separated from adjacent muscles by fascia
Layers of connective tissue extending into the muscle to form partitions between muscle bundles are continuous with attachments of muscle to periosteum called tendons
The characteristic striated appearance of skeletal muscle is due to the arrangement of alternation protein filaments composed of _________ and _____________ actin, myoisn
An injury in which a few muscle fibers are torn but the fascia is left intact is called a mild muscle strain
The union between a nerve fiber and a muscle fiber is the neuromuscular junction
A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it controls are called a motor unit
When the cross-bridge of the myosin molecule forms linkages with actin filaments, the result is shortening of the muscle fiber
The energy used in muscle contraction is supplied by the decomposition of adenine triphosphate
A substance that stores energy released when stores of ATP are in low supply is creatine phosphatec
The chemical that is necessary for the transmission of an impulse from a nerve to a muscle fiber is acetylcholine
The ion necessary to link myosin and actin is calcium
After prolonged muscle use, muscle fatigue occurs due to an accumulation of lactic acid
The minimal strength stimulus needed to elicit contraction of a single muscle fiber is called a(n) threshold stimulus
The strength of a muscle contraction in response to different levels of stimulation is determined by the number of motor units stimulated
The period of time between a stimulus to a muscle and muscle response is called the latent period
Muscle tone a state of sustained, partial contraction of muscles that is necessary to maintain posture
Atrophy a decrease in the size and strength of a muscle
What muscle changes will occur in response to an exercise like swimming that produces relatively weak muscle contraction? Muscle will be able to resist fatigue, increased numbers of mitochondria and capillaries will form
Two types of smooth muscle are _______ muscle and ________ muscle multiunit, visceral
Peristalsis is due to what characteristics of smooth muscle? capacity of smooth muscle fibers to excite each other, rhythmicity
Smooth muscle contracts (more slowly, more rapidly) than skeletal muscle following stimulation more slowly
Impulses travel relatively (rapidly, slowly) through cardiac muscle rapidly
Smooth body movements depend on _____________ giving way to prime movers antagonists
The muscle that compresses the cheeks inward when it contracts is the buccinator
The muscles that move the head to one side are the sternocleidomastoid,semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis
The muscle that abducts the upper arm and can both flex and extend the humerus is the deltoid
The band of tough connective tissue that extends from the xiphoid process to the symphysis pubis and serves as an attachment for muscles of the abdominal wall is the linea alba
The heaviest muscle in the body, which serves to straighten the leg at the hip during walking, is the gluteus maximus
Created by: sissiloo