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A&P Ch. 1

An Intro to the Human Body

Anatomy To cut apart. The science of body structures and relationships.
Physiology Nature of the body. The science of body functions. Structure/Functions. If the structure changes, so will the function.
Levels of Structural Organization & Body Systems 1) Chemical level 2) Cellular level 3)Tissue level 4)Organ level 5)System level 6)Organism level
What are the 11 Systems of the human body? Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive
Components of Integumentary system... Skin and associated structures (hair, fingernails, toenails, sweat glands, and oil glands)
Components of Skeletal system... Bones, joints and associated cartilages.
Components of Muscular system... Skeletal muscle (muscle used to attach to bones) (other muscles include smooth and cardiac)
Components of Nervous system... Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs, such as eyes and ears.
Components of Endocrine system Hormone producing glands (pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, and testes)
Components in Cardiovascular system... Blood, heart, and blood vessels.
Components in Lymphatic system and Immunity... Lymphatic fluid and vessels; spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils. Cells that carry out immune response (B cells, T cells, and others)
Components inf Respiratory system... Lung, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchial tubes
Components of Digestive system... Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and anus. Also includes organs that assist in digestive process, such as salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Components of Urinary system... Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Components of Reproductive system... Gonads (testes and ovaries) and associated organs (uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis.
Functions of Integumentary system... Protect body Helps regulate body temp Eliminates some wastes helps make Vit D Detects sensations (touch, pain, warmth, cold) Stores fat and provides insulation
Functions of Skeletal system... Supports and protects body Provides surface area for muscle attachments Aids body movements Houses cells that produce blood cells Stores minerals and lipids (fats)
Functions of Muscular system... Participates in body movements Maintains posture Produces heat
Functions of Nervous system... Generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities Detects and interprets changes in bodies internal and external environments Responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions
Functions of Endocrine system... Regulates body activities by releasing hormones (chemical messengers transported in blood from endocrine gland or tissue to target organ)
Functions of Cardiovascular system... Heart pumps blood through blood vessels; Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells/carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells/helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature, and water content of body fluids; blood components help defend afainst disease
Functions of Lymphatic system... Returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B cells and T cells that protect against disease-causing microbes.
Functions of Respiratory system... Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; Helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids; Air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sounds.
Functions of Digestive system... Physical and chemical breakdown of food Absorbs nutrients Eliminates solid wastes.
Functions of Urinary system... Produces/Stores/Eliminates Urine Eliminates wastes Regulates chemical composition of blood Helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids Maintains body's mineral balance Helps regulate production of red blood cells
Functions of Reproductive system... Gonads produce gametes (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism Gonads release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes Associated organs transport and store gametes Mammary glands produce milk
Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques Palpation Auscultation Percussion
Life processes in humans include... Metabolism Responsiveness Movement Growth Differentiation Reproduction
What is Homeostasis? and How is it maintained? A condition of equilibrium, or balance, in the body's internal environment. Regulatory processes
What is the purpose of Extracellular Fluid? The survival of our body cells is dependent on the precise regulation of the chemical composition of their surrounding fluid.
What happens during Homeostatic Imbalance? Disease, disorder, and even death may result
Created by: AbbyLynn127