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AP Harper Ch 6,7,8,9


Bone is what type of tissue? Connective
Name the bone functions Shape, support, protection,movement, electrolyte balance, blood production and Acid-base balance
Which bones support the body and hold it upright? legs, pelvis, and Vertebral column
Bones store and release what? calcium and phosphorus
a major site for blood cell formation? bone marrow
Bones encase what? bone marrow
Describe Acid-base balance in the bones? Bone absorbs and releases alkaline salts to help maintain a stable pH.
Longer than they are wide long bones
have a very long axis long bones
The femur of the thigh and the humerus of the arm are examples of what bones long bones
These bones work like levers to move limbs long bones
As broad as they are long short bones
These bones tend to be shaped like cubes short bones
Carpal bones of the wrist and tarsal bones of the ankle are examples of what bones? short bones
What type of bones protect organs? Flat bones
Type of bone that is thin, flat and often curved? Flat bones
Bones of the skull, the ribs, and the breastbone (sternum) are examples of what type of bones? Flat bones
The Shoulder blades are another example of what type of bones? Flat bones
_________ __________ provide a large surface area for the attachment of muscles. Shoulder blades
Often clustered in groups, these bones come in various sizes and shapes. Irregular bones
Vertebrae and facial bones are examples of what type of bones? Irregular bones
Sesamoid are what type of bones? Irregular bones
Small bones embedded in tendons? Sesamoid Bones
The kneecap is an example of what type of bone? Sesamoid bones
The tiniest bone in the body is found where? The ear
Thick compact bone makes up this hollow cylinder Diaphysis
The central shaft-like portion of the long bone Diaphysis
This gives the long bone the strength it needs to support a large amount of weight Diaphysis
The head of each end of a long bone Epiphysis
Strengthens the joint; also allows an expanded area for the attachment of tendons and ligaments. Epiphysis
Made of porous-looking spongey bone. Epiphysis
Central hollow portion of the long bone medullary cavity
epithelial membrane lining the inside of the medullary cavity endosteum
In children, the medullary cavity of the long bone is filled with blood cell-producing red bone marrow
In adults, most of the marrow has turned _______. yellow
Yellow marrow is rich in what? fat
A dense fibrous membrane that covers the diaphysis of the long bone periosteum
When fibers of the periosteum weave together with the fibers of tendons, this arrangement ensures what? a strong connection between muscle and bone.
_________ is crucial for bone survival. periosteum
Some of the fibers of the periosteum _________ the bone, ensuring that the membrane stays firmly anchored. penetrates
Thick cartilage that separates the epiphysis and diaphysis at each end of a long bone. epiphyseal plate
epiphyseal plate is also known as the ? growth plate
Where would you find an epiphyseal plate? In the long bone of a growing child
Once growth has stopped, the epiphyseal plate is replace by what? epiphyseal line
inflammation of bone and marrow Osteomyelitis
Bone includes what types of cells? Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts, and Osteocytes
The study of bone Osteology
Help form bone by secreting substances that comprise the bone's matrix Osteoblasts
dissolves unwanted or unhealthy bone Osteoclasts
mature osteoblasts that have become entrapped in the hardened bone matrix osteocytes
the two functions of osteocytes some dissolve bone while others deposit new bone.
Contribute to the maintenance of bone density while also assisting with the regulation of blood levels of calcium and phosphorus osteocytes
Bone is unique from other connective tissue because of its matrix
The matrix of the bone consists of collagen fibers and crystalline salts (primarily calcium and phosphate
The ________ of bone is hard and calcified. matrix
What types of strength does bone have? tensile and compressional
Which strength does bone lack? torsional strength
When collagen fibers in the matrix make bone highly resistant to stretching forces this is callled tensile strength
When calcium salts allow bones to resist strong squeezing forces this is called compressional strength
Whenever bone experiences an increase in load, the osteocytes do what? stimulate the creation of new bone
Osseous tissue that is light and porous spongy (cancellous) bone
type of bone that is found in the ends of the long bones and in the middle of most other bones spongy (cancellous) bone
spongy bone is always surrounded by durable compact bone
bone that consists of latticework spongy
latticework of bone is called trabeculae
trabeculae adds strength without adding ______, weight
The cavities between the trabeculae are filled with red bone marrow
Red marrow supplies spongy bone with _________ and also produces what? blood and produces blood cells
If the stress a bone is exposed to changes, the ___________ will realign themselves to compensate. trabeculae
Lamellae is found in what type of bone? compact
In compact bone, layers of matrix are arranged in concentric, onion-like rings called lamellae
Haversion canal goes which direction? up and down
Basic structural unit of compact bone osteon
transverse passageways that connect the haversion canals volkmann's canals
transport blood and nurtrients from the bone's exterior to the osteocytes locked inside volkmann's canals
canals are part of the ______. Osteon
consists of an elaborate network of canals and passageways containing nerves and blood vessels compact bone
bone marrow is a type of _____ tissue soft
nearly all of a child's bone contains red marrow
produces red blood cells red marrow
type of soft tissue that fills the medullary cavity of long bones bone marrow
fills the spaces of spongy bone bone marrow
What are the two types of marrow? red and yellow
What type of marrow no longer produces blood cells? yellow
When would yellow marrow change back into red marrow? severe, chronic blood loss or anemia
In an adult, red bone marrow can be found only in the ribs, sternum, vertebrae, skull, pelvis, and upper parts of both the humerus and femur.
The first skeleton in a developing fetus is composed of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue
Early skeleton evolves into bone through which process ossification
Name the two types of ossification processes One for the fibrous connective tissue and one for cartilage
When groups of stem cells in the tissue differentiate into osteoblasts it is called intramembranous ossification
By what age is the skull completely ossified? age 2
Part of the newborns skull that consists of fibrous connective tissue fontanels
Most bones evolve from cartilage
At 3 months gestation the fetus has a skeleton composed mostly of cartilage
Process of turning cartilage into bone endochondral ossification
endochondral ossification begins in the ______ bones long
Bones grow in length or elongate for how long? a fixed period
Bones widen and thicken for how long? throughout the lifespan
Bone lengthening occurs where? at the epiphyseal plate
layer of hyaline cartilage at each end of the bone epiphyseal plate
When bone lengthening stops, the epiphyses have _______. closed
What remains when the epiphyses have closed? a line of spongy bone called the epiphyseal line
When the epiphyseal plate separates from the diaphysis or epiphysis this is called an epiphyseal fracture
What type of fracture can effect future bone growth? an epiphyseal fracture
When bone cells destroy old bone resorption
creation of new bone ossification
The process of osteoclasts removing matrix and reducing the mass of little-used bone remodeling
repairs minor traumas and contributes to homeostasis by releasing calcium into the blood remodeling
After age ___bone loss increases while bone formation slows causing bones to _______. 40, weaken
It's possible to increase bone density through exercise
lack of exercise causes increased bone loss
Which factors affect bone growth hereditary, nutrition, hormones, and exercise
a break in a bone fracture
A bone that is manipulated into it's original position without surgery is called closed reduction
When surgery is needed to reposition the bone this is called open reduction
Type of fracture in which the bone remains aligned and surrounding tissue is intact simple
Type of fracture in which the bone breaks and has pierced the skin. compound
Type of fracture is one in which the fracture is incomplete. Causes the bone to splinter rather than break completely greenstick
Type of fracture that occurs in young children greenstick
buckle fracture is a greenstick fracture
type of fracture most likely to happen as a result of a car accident comminuted fracture
Type of fracture in which the bone is broken into pieces. comminuted
jagged bone ends often make this type of fracture difficult to reposition spiral
Type of fracture in which the fracture line spirals around the bone, the result of a twisting force spiral
elbow fractures commonly occur in childhood
a break in a diseased or weakened bone, usually result from a force that wouldn't normally fracture a healthy bone pathologic fracture
uncomplicated fractures heal in 8 to 12 weeks
Steps of fracture repair 1. Initial hematoma transforms into granulation tissue 2.Granulation tissue transforms into a soft callus 3. A hard callus forms around the fracture 4. Remodeling replaces the callus tissue with bone
exaggerated thoracic curvature Kyphosis ( hunchback)
exaggerated lumbar curvature Lordosis (swayback)
lateral curvature of the spine Scoliosis
Thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the surface of the epiphysis articular cartilage
osseous tissue bone tissue
the two divisions of the skeleton Axial (80 bones) Appendicular (126 bones)
projections that allow muscle attachment and depressions or passages that provide routes for blood vessels and nerves articulations
axial skeleton consists of skull, rib cage, and vertebral column
appendicular skeleton consists of bones of limbs and the pelvic and shoulder area
central supporting axis axial skeleton
adult skeleton has ____ bones 260
name the bones of the cranium (skull) frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal
bony structure housing the brain cranium
join together at the top of the head to form the top and sides of the cranial cavity parietal bones
forms the forehead and the roof of the eye sockets (orbits) frontal bone
forms the rear of the skull occipital bone
______ means hole meatus
form the sides of the cranium and part of the cranial floor temporal bones
contain the structures of the inner ear and middle ear temporal bones
forms a key part of the cranial floor as well as the floor and the side of the orbits. sphenoid bone
an indented area on top of the sphenoid bone sella turcica
houses the pituitary gland sella turcica
only movable joint in the cranium temporalmandibular joint
joint between the parietal bones and the frontal bone coronal suture
joint between the left and right parietal bones sagittal suture
the line of articulation between the parietal bones and the occipital bone lambdoidal suture
skull contains a number of holes called foramina
large opening in the base of the skull that allows the spinal cord to pass through it as it connects to the brain stem foramen magnum
the bones that meet to form the upper jaw maxillae
form the foundation of the face maxillae
bones that shape the cheeks and form the outer edge of the orbit zygomatic bones
largest and strongest bone in the face mandible
______ articulates with the temporalmandibular bone mandible
rectangular bones form the bridge of the nose nasal bones
bones of the ear malleus, incus, stapes also called ossicles