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Nervous

Mr. G’s Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
Nervous System a complex, highly organized system that monitors, regulates, and coordinates all activities outside the body.
Neuron basic structural unit of the nervous system; consists of a cell body, a nucleus, dendrites, and an axon
Dendrites nerve fibers; receive messages from other neurons and carries these impulses toward the cell body; short with many branches
Axon single nerve fiber; conveys messages away from the cell body to other neurons or to muscle or gland cells; longer and branchless;
Synapse spaces between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another
Impulses signals coming from one axon 'jump' the synapse to get to the dendrite of another neuron
Myelin Sheath lipid covering on an axon; increase the rate of impulse transmission and insulates and maintains the axon
Neurotransmitters special chemicals located at the end of each axon allowing the nerve impulses to pass from one neuron to another
Nerve Impulse information is conveyed as nerve impulses or action potentials; .1 volts in strength and last 1 millisecond
Afferent (sensory nerves) carry messages from all parts of the body to the brain and spinal cord
Efferent (motor nerves) carry messages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
2 divisions of the nervous system central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System cranial and spinal nerves
2 divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System somatic and autonomic
Somatic Nervous System carries message between the CNS and the body -12 pair of cranial nerves, -31 pair of spinal nerves, -8 cervical nerves, -12 thoracic nerves, -5 lumbar nerves, -sacral nerves and -1 pair of coccygeal spinal nerves
Autonomic Nervous System contains sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems- they work together to control involuntary body functions
6 main parts of the brain cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
Cerebrum The largest and highest portion of the brain, partly divided into right and left hemispheres, cerebral cortex arranged in folds or patterns of fissures into 4 lobes
4 lobes of the Cerebrum frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
Frontal Lobe base for speech production, problem solving, judgment, movement initiation, smell, and aspects of 'personality'
Parietal Lobe comprehension and bodily sensations are perceived
Temporal Lobe recognition of sounds
Occipital Lobe analyzing and interpreting visual information
Cerebellum hindbrain or little brain; located under the posterior portion of the cerebrum, Assists in the coordination of skeletal muscles, maintain balance, posture and muscle tone
Diencephalon Between cerebrum and midbrain; contains thalamus and hypothalamus
Thalamus monitors incoming sensory information and relays it to the cortex
Hypothalamus regulates and controls the autonomic nervous system, appetite, water balance, sleep, emotions
Midbrain below the cerebrum at the top of the brainstem; responsible for conducting impulses between the brain parts and certain eyes and auditory reflexes
Pons section below the midbrain and in the brainstem; responsible for conducting messages to other parts of the brain; chewing, tasting, and saliva production; respiration
Medulla Oblongata lowest part of brainstem; connects w/ the spinal cord and is responsible for regulating heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing and blood pressure
Three layers protect the brain and spinal cord dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater
Dura Mater thick, tough, outer layer
Arachnoid Membrane delicate, weblike middle layer
Pia Mater innermost layer; contains blood vessels that nourish the nerve tissue
Ventricles 4 hollow spaces within the cerebrum under the arachnoid membrane that contains cerebral spinal fluid
Cerebral Spinal Fluid clear, colorless fluid that cushions the brain and spinal cord form shock; contains proteins and glucose that provide energy and lymphocytes that protect against infection
Sympathetic Nervous System prepares body to act in times of emergency; increases heat rate, respiration, blood pressure and slows digestion
Parasympathetic Nervous System after the emergency, counteracts SNS, slows heart rate, decreases respiration, lowers BP, and increases digestion
hydrocephalus born with it (born premature), caused by over production of cerebrospinal fluid, large head, brain damage, pain, death, to treat: shunt inside brain and tube installed
meningitis caused by a virus/bacteria, spread by casual contact, symptoms: headache, fever, stiff neck, inflamed meninges, rash, to treat (bacterial): prevention (vaccine), antibiotics...serious/deadly, (viral): manage symptoms
multiple sclerosis auto-immune disorder, body produces antibodies to myelin sheath, symptoms: pain, lose motor function, numbness, muscle weakness, chronic, progressive, terminal, treat symptoms
epilepsy diagnosed early on, born with it, seizure disorder (grand mal or petite mal), brain damage, control with medicine, surgery
Parkinson's disease not enough dopamine being made or received, symptoms: shuffling gate, spastic/ random movements, involuntary muscle movement, to treat: medication to encourage release of doamine...ages 65 and up
Alzheimer's disease caused by genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors, deteriorates brain, dementia, lost ability speaking, can't recognize people, forgetfulness, confusion, progressive (5-10 yrs), terminal, manage symptoms (antibiotics)...ages 50 and up
Created by: rotechams