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GOV. A/B CH 1 CARDS

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian U.S. Gov. A & B CH. 1 Flashcards 2020

QuestionAnswer
What is a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher authority? A "state".
What is the difference between a "nation" and a "nation - state"? A "nation" includes cultural aspects such as language and custom but not necessarily territorial boundaries. A "nation - state" is a group of people that are bound together by cultural traits, have a territorial boundary, and has a common government.
List the names of the three (3) economic systems we learned about in chapter 1. Capitalism, Socialism, and Communism.
Name the 4 Theories of the Origin of the State. Evolutionary Theory, Force Theory, Divine Right Theory, and the Social Contract Theory.
What is the main difference between Thomas Hobbes' ideas about Social Contract Theory versus John Locke? The main difference is that Thomas Hobbes believed that the people must honor the unwritten Social Contract with their government - even if the government failed to protect them; Locke believed the people could break it if that happened.
What are the four (4) purposes of government listed in our textbook? 1. Maintain social order, 2. provide public services, 3. provide for national security and a common defense, 4. provide for and control the economic system.
What are the three (3) ways that we can describe the relationship between a nation's central government and its smaller government divisions (this is called a Government System)? 1. Unitary System where all key powers rest with the national gov., 2. Federal System where powers are divided between the national gov. & state or provincial govs., 3. A Confederacy, where the smaller gov. units hold the most power.
What are the purposes of a having a "constitution"? 1. It sets out ideals that the people bound by the constitution believe in and share, 2. It establishes the basic structure of gov. and defines the gov's. power & duties, 3. It provides the supreme law for the country.
What is a "constitutional government"? "It refers to a government in which a constitution has authority to place clearly recognized limits on the powers of those who govern. Thus, it is a 'limited government'.
What are "political parties"? A group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, & determine public policy.
What is/ are politics? The name given to the effort to control of influence the way a government conducts itself or makes policies/ laws.
What is a Unitary government? A type of government system in which all power is given to a central - or national - government.
What is a Federal system of government? A type of government system in which power is divided between the state and a national government.
What are the two (2) basic ideas behind Social Contract Theory? 1. People surrender to the state the power needed to maintain order; 2. The state agrees to use that power to protect its citizens.
What is an Autocracy? Government in which power is held by a single person.
What is a Monarchy? A type of Autocratic government in which a king, queen, or emperor exercises supreme powers of government.
What is an "Oligarchy"? A system of government in which a small group holds power.
What is a "Democracy"? A government in which the people ultimately hold the power.
What does "Free Enterprise" mean? It is a system in which individuals have the chance to make their own economic decisions.
What five (5) traits make a nation/ country more likely to develop a democratic government? 1. Active citizen participation, 2. A favorable economy (with free enterprise), 3. widespread education, 4. strong civil society, 5. Social Consensus (where democratic values are accepted).
What is the difference between a Communist economic system & a Socialist economic system? In a Communist system, the government distributes goods as they see fit. In a Socialist system, the government distributes goods equally among all citizens.
What is the definition of the term "politics"? The art or science concerned with guiding or influencing government policy.
What is the definition of the term "political science"? A social science that deals mainly with describing and analyzing political (and especially governmental) institutions and processes.
What was the "Mayflower Compact"? The first written set of laws in the New World.
What were the "Fundamental Orders of Connecticut"? The first written constitution in the New World.
Explain how a Capitalist economic system works. Individual citizens are allowed to purchase the "means of production" (ex: a fishing boat), they decide how much to pay workers, how to distribute goods they produce (ex: fish), & get to keep all profits.
What are the 5 main points of Capitalism? 1. Private ownership & control of property & economic resources; 2. Free enterprise; 3. Competition among businesses; 4. Freedom of choice; 5. Possibility of profits.
What is Socialism? Economic system in which the government owns the basic means of production, determines the use of resources, distributes the product & wages, & provides social services.
What is Communism? An economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions.
What does the term "laissez - faire" mean/ refer to? This term means "to let alone". It relates to the idea that the government should keep its hands off of the economy. The government should only intervene to ensure free competition in the marketplace.
Created by: sticklerpjpII