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Anatomy MidtermTHS

THS Anatomy & Physiology

Axial Skeleton consist of bones that lie around the longitudinal axis of the human bodyThe skeleton associated with the central nervous system—the cranium, all the bones of the vertebral column, the ribs, and the sternum.
Bones of Axial Skeleton Skull (cranium & face), Hyoid, Auditory ossicles , Vertebral Column ,Thorax (sternum & ribs)
Appendicular Skeleton consists of bones of the upper and lower limbs plus the bone groups called girdles
Bones of Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral girdle (clavicle & scapula) , Upper limbs(humerus,ulna,carpals,metacarpals & phalanges) / pelvic girdle ( hip/perlvic bone) / Lower Limbs(femur, patella, fibula, tibia , tarsals, metatarsals & phalanges)
Functions of Bone Support / Protection Triglyceride storage /Movement / Mineral Storage /Blood Cell Production
Distinguish Human Fetal Skull and Human Adult Skull Bone Formation /Soft Spots / Different Bone Proportions
What is the definition of anatomy? Physiology? How are they related? Anatomy is mainly concerned with studying structure or form while physiology is more concerned with function or how something works. They are related because how something is structured determines what its function is.
What are the different levels of life? Give an example for each level Organism - organ systems - organ - tissues - cells - molecules - atomsEx: Human cardiovascular system  heart  muscle tissue  cardiac muscle cells  amino acids  nitrogen
Identify the various organ systems and state their overall function. Integumentary System Skeletal System Muscular System Nervous System Endocrine System Cardiovascular System Lymphatic System and Immunity Respiratory System Digestive System Urinary System Reproductive System
What are some necessary life functions? Metabolism, Responsiveness, Movement, Growth, Differentiation, Reproduction
Define metabolism. The sum of all the chemical reactions happening in your body.
Define homeostasis. The maintenance of relatively stable conditions.
*Describe how a negative feedback loop works to keep homeostasis. See Figure 1. 3 on pg.8
*How is a positive feedback loop different from a negative feedback loop? Read on pg. 8 “Negative Feedback Systems” and “Positive Feedback System” and then do a compare/contrast.
Describe the anatomical position Subject stands erect facing the observer with the head level and the eyes facing forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directly forward, and the arms are at the sides with the palms turned forward.
Divides body lengthwise into anterior and posterior portions. Frontal section
Divides body into superior and inferior portions Transverse section
Define a sagittal cut. Passes through the midline of the body and divides it into right and left sides.
What does the ventral body cavity contain? Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
What does the dorsal body cavity contain? Cranial and vertebral cavity
What is the main function of epithelial tissue?= covering
How is epithelial tissue classified?= no. of cell layers; cell shape
Describe the structure and function of the various epithelial tissue (simple columnar, simple cuboidal, simple squamous, pseudostratified, stratified squamous, transitional, etc)= simple squamous, simple cubodial, simple columnarstratified squamous, stratified cubodial, stratified columnarpseudostratifeid, transitional
Identify where different epithelial tissues are found.= simple squamouscubodialsimple columnar pseudostratifiedstratified squamousstratified cubodial and stratified columna
What is common among the different types of connective tissue?= 21)Specialized cells, Ground Substance, and Fiber / Bone, Cartilage, Dense Connective Tissue / Loose Connective Tissue
What makes up adipose tissue? = Fat
What functions does adipose tissue serve?= Body Temp, Insulation, Energy Reserve
Study diagrams of epithelial tissue= draw/label
Definition of axial and appendicular skeleton. Know what parts of the body make up each.= Axial skeleton is composed of the bones of the skull, vertebral column, and bony thorax (sternum and rib cage). Appendicular skelelton is made up of the shoulder girdle, bones of the upper limb, pelvic girdle, and bones of the lower limb.
What is the function of bone?= Main function is provide support and aid in movement; also serves to make blood cells (hematopoiesis) and store calcium and phosphorus
What can distinguish a human fetal skull and a human adult skull?= Presence of “soft spots” which are also known as fontanels
Name the bones of the skull. Which ones are single bones? Which ones are paired?= Bones of the cranium (8) – frontal (s ), parietal (p), temporal (p), occipital (s), sphenoid (s), ethmoid (s)Facial bones (14) – maxillae (p), palatine (p), zygomatic (p), lacrimal (p), nasal (p), vomer (s), inferior conchae (p) mandible (s)
Describe the regions of the spine. Indicate how many vertebras are present in each region.= Cervical (7), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacrum (1), Coccyx (1
What are the special names of the C1 and C2 vertebrae?= C1- atlas, C2 – axis
What are the bones of the cheek called?= Zygomatic
The two bones of the hard palate?= Maxilla and palantine
What 2 bones make up the shoulder girdle?= Clavicle (collarbone) and Scapula (shoulder blade)
How is the shoulder different from the hip in terms of structure and function?= more flexible but more prone to dislocation
Name the bones of the arm and forearm.= humerus, radius, ulna
Where are the coronoid process, olecranon process and the trochlear notch?= ulna
Name the bones of the wrist and hand.= carpals (8), metacarpals (5), phalanges (14)
Name the bones of the foot.= tarsus (7), metatarsals (5), phalanges (14)
What is the only bone of the skull that is movable?= mandible
What two bones articulate at the glenoid cavity?= humerus and scapula
The ribs are attached to which vertebrae?= thoracic
Anatomical name for “breast bone”.= sternum
Name 2 types of bone tissue.= compact and spongy
What are the primary curvatures of the spine? The secondary curvatures?= Primary curvaturesThoracicSacral Secondary curvaturesCervicalLumbar
What separates and cushions the bones of the vertebrae?= A ligamentous structure called a spinal disc
What distinguishes true ribs from false ribs?= True ribs connect at the sternum and false ribs do not.
What is the main function of muscle tissue?= Contract and shorten
Muscle cell can also be called?= Muscle fiber
Know the sources of energy for muscle contractions.= ATP
Definition of endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium.= Endomyosium is a connective tissue covering the surrounds an individual muscle fiber Perimysium is a connective tissue covering that surrounds a fascicle Epimysium is a connective tissue covering the surrounds the whole muscle.
Identify the parts and regions of the sarcomere (z-lines, I bands, A bands, H bands, myosin, actin, etc.)= Z disc Thick filament Thin filament
Name the 2 myofilaments.= Actin and Myosin
What is an action potential?= Action potential – an electrical event occurring when a stimulus of sufficient intensity is applied to a neuron or muscle cell, allowing sodium ions to move into the cell.
Skeletal Muscles sometimes certain muscles are named on the basis of certain criteria
Direction of muscle fibers oblique - slanted
Size of muscles 3 different sizes
Maximus largest
Minimus Smallest
Longus Longest
Location Origin and insertion
Actions of muscles flexorextensioradductor
Muscles of the face
Created by: mahalkita



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