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Cells

Cell structures, energy, transportation, and concentrations

TermDefinition
Cell membrane semi-permeable structure, lipid bilayer separates cell from external environment
Cytoplasm semi-fluid substances that holds all cell's organelles
Cytoskeleton network of microtubules to give cell shape and to support it
Microvilli extensions of cell membrane to increase surface area of cell
Cilia hair-like extensions of cell membrane to move
Centrosome used in cell division, spindle apparatus attaches here
Centrioles microtubules that make up centrosome
Ribosomes makes protein
Mitochondria powerhouse of cell, makes ATP
Nucleus control center, DNA located here
Nucleolus inside nucleus, makes rRNA
Endoplasmic Reticulum network of membranes there are 2 types
Rough ER has ribosomes
Smooth ER makes lipids, steroids, and involved in detoxification
Golgi Body packs protein and sends them in membrane bound vesicles
Lysosome filled with hydrolytic enzymes
Flagella long, whip-like structure to move, only in sperm cells for humans
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) primary energy carrier in body ATP-> ADP+Pi+E
Amount of energy corresponds to amount of energy needed to drive biochemical reactions
Cells are protected from excessive energy release that might be damaging and energy squandering is kept to a minimum
Passive Cell Transport no energy needed
Diffusion movement from area of high concentration to area of low concentration
Simple Diffusion unassisted diffusion of small particles or lipid soluble molecules
Osmosis unassisted diffusion of water
Facilitated Diffusion diffusion with help of proteins
Active Cell Transport needs energy and carrier protein, movement from area of low concentration to area of high concentration
Bulk Transport needs energy
Exocytosis substance moves to the outside of the cell
Endocytosis substance moves to the inside of the cell, two types
Phagocytosis solid is moved inside cell
Pinocytosis liquid is moved inside cell
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis molecules bind to specific receptors on cell surface: binding is very specific only certain molecules will be allowed into cell
Isotonic concentration inside cell is EQUAL to concentration outside cell: no movement of water
Hypertonic concentration outside cell is HIGHER than concentration inside cell: water moves out of cell: cell shrinks
Hypotonic concentration inside cell is HIGHER than concentration outside cell: water moves in cell: cell swells or burst
Created by: mchuan
 

 



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