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Nervous System


CNS central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord
PNS peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord
three types of neurons sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons
somatic nervous system voluntary portion of the PNS
autonomic nervous system (ANS) The involuntary portion of the PNS
Sympathetic subdivisions of the ANS, which adapts the body to periods of stress or threats and is often referred to as the "fight or flight system"
Parasympathetic subdivisions of the ANS, most active during ordinary, relaxed conditions and is sometimes called the "rest and repose system."
Cell of NS Neurons (nerve cell), Glia (support cell)
Neuron parts cell body, dendrites, axon
sensory neurons transmit impulse to spinal cord and brain from all parts of body. Aka "afferent neurons"
Motor neurons transmit impulses away from brain and spinal cord. Conduct impulse to muscle & glandular epithelial tissue. Aka"efferent neurons"
Interneurons conduct impulse from sensory neurons to motor neurons. Aka " central or connecting neurons"
Axon surrounded by segmented wrapping Myelin.
Myelin fatty substance formed by Schwann cells
Nodes of Ranvier indentation between adjacent Schwann cells
Neurilemma outer cell membrane of a Schwann cell.
Neuroglia (glia) holds functioning neurons together and protect them
Glioma brain tumor developed from glia
astrocytes glia cells, many sizes, star-like, threadlike extension
Microglia smaller than astrocytes, usually stationary. can digest damaged cell.
ogliodendrocytes hold nerve fibers together in peripheral nervous system only
multiple sclerosis (MS) myelin disorder. myelin loss of destruction with oligodendrocyte injury and death
neuroma general name for tumors arising in NS structure
white matter bundles of axons that are myelinated
gray matter unmyelinated axon
reflex arc neuron pathway, innervate muscle contraction or gland secretion
receptors are the beginning of dendrites of sensory neurons
effector muscle or glands that are innervated by a nerve impulse along a motor neuron in a reflex arc
organs of the nervous system brain, spinal cord and nerves
Cells that conduct impulses neurons
white matters of CNS Bundles of myelinated fibers
saltatory conduction action potential seems to “jump” from node to node along a myelinated fiber
pia mater innermost layer of the meninges
modulla oblongata, midbrain and pons three divisions of the brain that make up the brainstem
cerebellum second largest part of the brain, located just below the posterior portion of the cerebrum
cranial nerve Nerves that originate from the brain
pairs of spinal nerves are connected to the spinal cord 31
obligodendroglia glia cell produces the myelin that envelopes the nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord
ventricles large fluid-filled spaces within the brain
choroid plexus Formation of the cerebrospinal fluid occurs here
dermatome Skin surface area supplied by a single spinal nerve
The limbic system integrates emotion
autonomic nervous system ANS subdivision of the nervous system that regulates involuntary functions
autonomic nervous system can be divided into parasympathetic and sympathetic
effect of sympathetic stimulation on the blood vessels in skeletal muscles is dilation
cranial nerve responsible for the sense of smell olfactory
Axon terminals of autonomic neurons release Norepinephrine and Acetylcholine
Medulla oblongata Lowest part of the brainstem
cerebellum Second largest part of the brain
cerebrovascular accident Stroke
Neuroblastoma Affects young children–highly malignant tumor
Hypothalamus, thalamus, pineal gland A division of the diencephalon
Hemiplegia Paralysis of one side of the body
synapse signal transmission from one neuron to next
Neurotransmitter chemical for neurons to communicate
PNS cranial and spinal nerves
Meninges protective covering of CNS
frontal lobe is the motor area and affects the personality, conscious thought, emotions, and memory
occipital lobe affects vision and vision-related reflexes and functions
temporal lobe affects hearing, smell, taste, and memory storage
acetylcholine is a Neurotransmitter
Cholinergic fibers secrete the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach) into the synapse and are located on the sympathetic preganglionic neurons, parasympathetic preganglionic neurons, and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons
Adrenergic fibers secrete norepinephrine (NE) into the synapse and are located on the sympathetic postganglionic neurons.
ganglia AKA peripheral junction box
Beta blockers classification of drugs that block the binding of norepinephrine and epinephrine
Voluntary functionality of somatic nervous system
craniosacral system also refer to as Parasympathetic system
thoracolumbar system also refer to as Sympathetic system
hypothalamus influence the release of hormones of the endocrine system
catecholamines classification neurotransmitters Dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin
Thalamus play a part in arousing or alerting the cerebrum
mixed cranial nerve carries both sensory and motor fibers
Somatic nervous system The voluntary portion of the peripheral nervous system
Autonomic nervous system The involuntary portion of the peripheral nervous system
Sympathetic /Parasympathetic subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic fight or flight system
dendrite highly branched part of the neuron that carries impulses toward the cell body
microglia cells that act as microbe-eating scavengers in the CNS
Schwann cells cells tha make myelin for axons outside the CNS
astrocytes glia cells that help form the blood-brain barrier
obligodendroclyte cells that make myelin for axons inside CNS
medulla oblongata part of the brainstem that contains cardiac, resporatory, and vasomotor centers
pons part of brainstem that is a conduction pathway between the brain and body
midbrain part of brainstem that contains relays for visual and auditory impulses
amines neurotransmitters that synthesized from amino acid molecules
fissures deepest sulci (groove)
Created by: ptenz