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NCE Research & Pro

research & program evaluation

experimental research is the process of gathering data in order to make evaluative comparisons regarding different situations
quasi-experiment researchers use preexisting groups, IV cannot be altered (gender, ethnicity)
internal validity refers to whether DVs were truly influenced by the experimental IVs or whether other factors had an impact
external validity refers to whether the experimental research results can be generalized to larger populations (other ppl, settings or conditions)
chi-square nonparametric test that tests whether a distribution differs significantly from an expected theoretical distribution
experiments emphasize parsimony - interpreting results in simplest way
Occam's Razor suggests that experimenters interpret results in simplest manner
bubbles flaws in research (hint - sticker on car window or tint)
undesirable variables do what to the experiment flaw the experiment
all correlational research is said to be confounded or flawed
American Psychological Association's Journal of Counseling Psychology publishes more counseling research articles than any other periodical in our field
basic research is conducted to advance our understanding of theory
applied research (action research or experience-near research) is conducted to advance our knowledge of how theories, skills, & techniques can be used in terms of practical application
a variable is a factor that varies or is capable of change
IV is a variable that the researcher manipulates, controls, alters, or wishes to experiment with. (I manipulate the IV)
DV is the variable the expresses the outcome or data (Data or DV) DV expresses data regarding factors you wish to measure
true experiment biofeedback
IVs & DVs can be discrete or continuous discrete - brand of counseling or occupation; continuous - height or weight
code of ethics for experiments 1-subjects are informed of risks; 2-negative after effects are removed; 3-subjects can w/draw at any time; 4-confidentiality of subjects will be protected; 5-research reports results will be presented in accurate format; 6-use only techniques trained in
control group does not receive IV
basic presupposition is that averages (or means) of groups do not differ significantly at the beginning of experiment
if you cannot ___ assign the subject to the 2 groups then your exam will consider the research a quasi-experiment randonmly
organismic IV is one the researcher cannot control yet it exists (height, weight, gender)
R. A. Fisher is known for hypothesis testing
hypothesis is a statement which can be ___ regarding the relationship of the IV & DV tested
null hypothesis suggests that there will not be a significant difference between experimental groups which received IV and control group which did not receive IV
in null hypothesis the IV does not affect the DV
meta-analysis is the study which analyzes the findings of numerous studies
alternative or affirmative hypothesis asserts that the IV has indeed caused a change
from a purely statistical standpoint, in order to compare a control group to the experimental group you will need a test of significance
descriptive statistics describes data (mean, median, mode)
P= probability or level of significance
P is set at .05 or lower (.01 or .001) indicates that differences will occur by chance only 5x in 100 (significance must be set before experiment begins)
ethnographic research is research collected by interviews, observations, and inspection of documents
level of significance could be referred to as level of confidence or confidence level
P = .05 also means differences truly exist; experimenter will obtain the same results 95 out of 100 times
the smaller the P value the best chance to rule out chance factors .001 = 1 chance in 1000 or .05 = 1 in 20; .01= 1 in 100
Type I & Type II errors are called alpha and beta
Type I or alpha errors are when researcher rejects the null hypothesis when its true
Type II or beta errors are when researcher accepts the null hypothesis when its false
Type I or R = rejects
Type II or A = accepts
probability of committing a Type I error equals the level of significance; therefore, level of significance is often referred to as alpha level
1 minus beta is called power of a statistical test; power connotes a statistical test's ability to reject correctly a false hypothesis
parametric tests have more power than nonparametric tests because parametric tests are ONLY used w/ interval and ratio data
ALL statistical tests rely on probability because there is a chance that results are merely chance occurrences
researchers call these chance factors errors
lowering the significance level (.01 or .001) lowers Type I error but it raises the risk of committing a Type II error
safest bet is to set alpha at very stringent level and then use a ___ sample size, so the correct decision (to accept or reject) can be made majority of time large
experimenter sets the ___ level alpha
raising sample size ___ risks of chance/error factors lowers
t-test is a simplistic form of analysis of variance
t-test is used to see if 2 sample means are significantly different; researcher sets level of significance & then runs experiment. t-test is computed & yields a t-value. researcher goes to t-table. if the t-value is lower than critical t - in table; accept the null hypothesis. computation must exceed # in table to reject null
one-way ANOVA or analysis of variance (F statistic) used when there are 2 or more groups. researcher consults an F table for critical value. If F value obtained exceeds critical F; null is rejected
analysis of covariance or ANCOVA/ANACOVA tests 2 or more groups while controlling for extraneous variables often called covariables
Kruskal-Wallis is used instead of a one-way ANOVA when data are nonparametric
Wilcoxon -signed rank test used in place of t-test when data are nonparametric & you wish to test whether 2 correlated means differ significantly
Mann-Whitney U-test used to determine whether 2 uncorrelated means differ significantly when data are non parametric
Spearman correlation or Kendall's tau used in place of Pearson r when parametric assumptions cannot be used
chi-square non parametric test examines whether obtained frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies
statisticians have created nonparametric tests that parallel popular parametric tests
when a study has more than 1 DV the term ___ of variance is used multivariate analysis (MANOVA)
2 IVs requires a 2 way ANOVA; 3 IVs requires a 3-way ANOVA
statistic that indicates the degree or magnitude of relationship between 2 variables is known as "correlation coefficient" abbreviated r
coefficient correlation makes a statement regarding the association of 2 variables & how a change in 1 is related to a change in another correlations range from 0.00=no relation; 1.0 or -1.0=perfect relation
a positive correlation is not stronger relation than negative one of same numerical value (i.e. -.70 is stronger than +.60) the minus sign just describes the fact that as 1 variable goes up the other goes down
positive correlation is evident when both variables change in ___ direction same
negative correlation is evident when variables are inversely associated - 1 goes up the other goes down (i.e. brushing teeth more causes less cavities)
biserial correlation is 1 variable is continuous (using interval scale) while the other is dichotomous (i.e. correlate state licensing exam scores to NCC status (dichotomy is licensed/unlicensed)
correlations are rarely 1.00 (perfect)
when 2 variables vary together this is called covary positively
when 1 variable increases while other decreases they are called covary negatively
correlational research is quasi-experimental and does not yield ___ data cause-effect
correlational data that describes the nature of 2 variables is called bivariable
if more than 2 variables are under scrutiny is it multivariable
N=1; N or number of persons being studied is 1. this is a "case study" of 1 approach. popular w/ behaviorists who seek overt (measurable) behavioral changes. ex. client's dysfunctional behavior is measured (baseline measure); treatment is implemented; then behavior is measured again (i.e. another baseline is computed) As=baseline, Bs=intervention implementation, Cs=2nd or alternative form of intervention
single case investigations are called idiographic studies or single subject designs
single-blind study - subject would ___ know if they are part of experimental or control group not
participant observer model - researcher ___ in study; while making observations about what transpired participates
double-blind study - experimenter and subjects are ___ of subjects' status unaware
experimenter effects can flaw experiment because experimenter might unconsciously communicate intent
AB or ABA time series design is the ___ type of single-subject research; popularized by behavior modifiers in 1960s/70s simplest
AB or ABA models rely on continuous measurement i.e. baseline is secured (A); intervention is implemented (B); outcome is examined by new baseline (ABA); in order to improve research process, an ABAB design can be used
If the pattern for 2nd AB administration mimics that of 1st AB, then chances increase that B (intervention or so-called treatment) ___ the changes rather than extraneous variable caused
ABA may be called "withdrawal design" or reversal of treatment
when researcher employs more than one target behavior it is multiple baseline design
correlational coefficient is a descriptive statistic which indicates degree of ___ relationship between 2 variables; also to show perfect relationship exists linear ; (i.e. 1.0 or -1.0) graphed - a straight line is formed
Pearson Product Moment correlation r is used for ___ or ___ data interval ; ratio
Spearman rho is used for ___ data ordinal
normal curve or Gaussian curve looks like a symmetrical bell
curves not symmetrical are asymmetrical - called skewed distributions
68-95-99.7 rule or empirical rule in normal distribution is 68% of scores will be +/- 1 SD of mean; 95% of scores will be +/- 2 SD of mean; 99.7% scores will be +/- 3 SD of mean
almost all scores will fall within __ SD of mean 3
mode, mean, median are most common measures of central tendency
mode is highest or max point of concentration; most frequently occurring score & least important measure
median is the middle score of distribution of scores
mean is the average
modal category is the highest value
bimodal curve looks like camel w/ 2 humps (i.e. men's & women's weights)
curve w/ more than 2 humps multimodal
range is the distance between largest & smallest scores. To compute range take largest number and subtract smallest # = R (sometimes adding a 1)
larger the range the greater the dispersion or spread of scores from the mean
most useful measure of central tendency is the mean or X w/ line over it
factorial design is used when there are 2 or more IVs
harmonic mean refers to a central tendency statistic that is reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of the set of values
harmonic mean cannot be used w/ negative numbers or data containing zero
mean is misleading when distribution is skewed or there are extreme scores
skewed distribution left or right side of curve are not mirror images & mean, median, mode fall at different points
normal curve, numbers fall at same point
w/ extreme scores the median is best statistic
median is directly in middle of numbers ranked from lowest to highest of odd numbers. If there are even numbers the median is computed by the mean of the 2 numbers in the middle
in factorial experiment several experimental variables are investigated & interactions are investigated & interactions can be noted; factorial designs include 2 or more IVs
sometimes IVs in factorial design are called levels
Solomon four group design the researcher uses 2 control groups (only 1 experimental group & 1 control group are pretested) the other control group & experimental group are merely post-tested; the genius of the design is that it lets the researcher know if results are influenced by pretesting (the 2 sets of groups can then be compared)
positively skewed - tail is to the right & low scores fall to left
negatively skewed - tail is to the left & high scores to right
raw scores don't tell us much without more information
histogram bar graph
mesokurtic refers to peakedness of a curve. the normal Gaussian curve is said to be mesokurtic since peak is in the middle
x axis (abscissa) is used to plot IV and it is on horizontal axis
y axis (ordinate) vertical axis is used for DV (or experimental data)
ethological observation observations of animals
inclusive range highest number -- lowest number + 1
exclusive range regular range; highest # -- lowest # = R
scattergrams or scatterplot is a pictorial diagram or graph of 2 variables being correlated
John Henry Effect (also called compensatory rivalry of a comparison group) is a threat to the interval validity of an experiment that occurs when subjects strive to prove that an experimental treatment that could threaten their livelihood rally isn't all that effective
SD if everyone scored the same, the SD would be zero
the greater the SD the greater is the spread
Z-scores are same as SD; sometimes SD are called z-scores
T-scores or transformed scores uses mean of 50 w/ each SD as 10 (i.e. z-score of -1.0 would be a T-score of 40; z-score of -1.5 would T-score of 35)
stanine score divides the distribution into ___ equal parts w/ 1 being the lowest & 9 being the highest point of curve 9
CEEB (College Entrance Examination Board) or ETS (Educational Testing Service) 200 -- 800 w/ mean of 500 has a SD of 100
F scores are never expressed as ___ negative number
Kurtosis refers to the ___ of a frequency distribution peakedness
platykurtic distribution is ; (plat sounds like ___) flatter & more spread out
a tall, thin and peaked curve is called (leaps tall buildings in a single bound) leptokurtic
stanine (contraction of words standard and nine) stanine scores divide the distribution into 9 equals intervals w/ stanine 1 as lowest and 9th & 9 as highest. ___ is the mean 5
4 basic measurement scales (noir) nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
nominal is strictly qualitative data, simplest type, it classifies, names, labels, or identifies (street address, ph #) nominal scale has true zero point & does NOT indicate order
parametric tests use __ & ___ data interval and ratio
nonparametric tests us ___ & __ data nominal and ordinal
ordinal scale (2nd level of measurement) puts variables in rank order; there is no math involved; ordinal sounds like order
interval scale has #s scaled at equal distances but has NO absolute zero point. Most tests fall in this category and you can add & subtract but not multiply or divide here
IQ tests provide ____ measurement interval
ratio scale is an interval scale w/ a true zero point. highest level of measurement adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing are all used. Most psychological attributes CANNOT be measured on a ratio scale
naturalistic observations no manipulation of either variable
2X3 factorial design uses 2 IVs. 1st IV has 2 levels (male & female) and 2nd IV has 3 levels
simplest form of descriptive research is ___ which requires a questionnaire return rate of ___ to be accurate. (the return is usually around 40% survey ; 50-75%
survey problems include poor construction of instrument, low return rate, fact that often subjects are not picked at random, & not representative of population
placebo fake
nocebo negative effect (i.e. you may only have 2 months to live)
Hawthorne Effect (1924-1932) subjects perform better when they know they are being observed (reactive effect or observer)
Rosenthal Effect or the experimenter expectancy effect
Observer bias observer has perceptions regarding research that are not accurate
Halo effect a trait not being observed (beauty) influences a researcher's rating on another trait
trend analysis refers to statistical procedure performed at different times to see if a trend is evident
ANCOVA OR ANACOVA similar to ANOVA but more powerful b/c it can help eliminate differences between groups which otherwise could not be solely attributed to the experimental IVs
covariate correlates the DV
cohort share similarities (i.e. birth years, in same war)
statistical regression predicts very high and very low scores will move toward the mean if a test is given again
quartile or fourths 25th percentile is 1st quartile, 50th is 2nd quartile, 75th is 3rd quartile, and distance between
cross-sectional method may be called "synchronic method" & longitudinal as "diachronic method"
cross sectional data are indicative of measurements or observations at single point in time
longitudinal study is data collected at different points in time
confederate or stooge researcher has an accomplice pose as a client
ipsative implies a within person analysis rather than a normative analysis between individuals (i.e whether you are looking at individual's own patterns revealed by measurement (i.e. high/lows) or whether his/her score is compared to others evaluated by same measure
chi-square - most popular non parametric statistical test; distribution is not normal
chi-square is merely used to determine whether an obtained distribution significantly from an expected distribution
demand characteristics relates to any bit of knowledge (correct or incorrect) that the subject is aware of that can influence behavior
summative evaluation is used to assess a final product; summative assess how well goal has been met
formative is ___ while program is underway ongoing
2 tailed test is often called a nondirectional experimental hypothesis
1 tailed test is a directional experimental hypothesis
1 tailed test have the advantage of having more power than 2 tailed tests
Pygmalion effect (Rosenthal/experimenter effect) experimenter falls in love w/ his own hypothesis and experiment becomes self-fulfilling prophecy
counterbalancing used to control for the fact the ___ of the an experiment could impact upon its outcome order
ahistoric therapy - any psychotherapeutic model that focuses on here & now rather than past
multiple treatment interference - subject receives more than__ treatment; it is tough to discern which modality truly caused the experiment one
SPSS - statistical package for the social sciences - computer software program that can ease pain of computing statistical data by hand
random (standard) sampling is random
stratified (stratum or strata) sampling - __ characteristic needs to be represented in sample special
cluster sampling used when it is nearly impossible to find a list of the ___ population entire
horizontal sampling occurs when researcher selects subjects from a ___ socioeconomic group single
vertical sampling when researcher selects persons from __ __ socioeconomic classes 2 or more
systematic sampling (vs. random sampling) used by taking ever nth person (i.e. 10,000 ppl - you want 1,000 for your study, so you pick the 1st person between 1-10 at random & then use every 10th person)
operational definition means to outline the ___ or gives details on how a test was performed procedures
nonparametric tests could be called distribution free tests
matched design subjects are matched in regard to any variable that could be correlated w/ DV
Mann-Whitney U-test used to determine whether 2 uncorrelated/unmatched means differ significantly
Wilcoxon signed-ranked test examines whether 2 correlated means differ significantly
Wilcoxon is an alternative to t-tests when parametric precepts cannot be accepted
deductive reduces the general to the specific
inductive goes from specific to general
attrition or experimental mortality subjects that drop out of study
standard error of measurement (SEM) tells counselor what would most likely occur if the same individual took same test again
Created by: zhenry88
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