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Chapter 14 Heart

Base Where the great vessels enter and leave the heart
Apex The point of maximum impulse, where the strongest beat can be heard.
Coronary Arteries Deliver oxygenated blood to the myocardium, while cardiac veins collect the deoxygenated blood. The two main.
The two main coronary arteries are Right and Left coronary artery-- arise from the ascending aorta and serve as the principle routes for supplying blood to the myocardium.
Right coronary artery Supplies blood to the right atrium, part of the left atrium, most of the right ventricle, and the inferior part of the left ventricle.
Left coronary artery Branches into the anterior descending and circumflex arteries, supply blood to the left atrium, most of the left ventricle, and most of the interventricular septum.
Coronary Sinus Most cardiac veins empty in -- , a large transverse vein on the hearts posterior, which returns the blood to the right atrium. (the exception is the anterior cardiac vein, which empty directly into the right atrium)
Key structure of the heart Pericardium, the heart wall, the chambers, and the valves
The pericardum Surrounding the heart is a double-walled sac called --. Anchored by ligaments and tissue to surrounding structures.
Pericardium has 2 layers The fibrous pericardium and Serous Pericardium
The Fiberous Pericardium a loose layer fitting sac of strong connective tissue-- is the outermost layer.
The Serous Pericardium Consists of two layers, covering the hearts surface.
Parietal Layer Lines the inside of the fibrous pericardium
Visceral Layer Covers the hearts surface
Heart skeleton A semi-rigid, fibrous, connective tissue called the skeleton of the heart, encircles each valve. Keeps the valves from stretching; it also acts as an insulating barrier between the atria and the ventricles, preventing electrical impulses from reaching the
Heart wall consists of three layers Endocardium, Myocardium, and Epicardium
The endocardium Lines the hearts chambers, covers the valves, and continues into the vessels. It consists of a thin layer of squamous epithelial cells.
The Myocardium Composted of cardiac muscle, forms the middle layer. It's the thickest of the three layers and performs the work of the heart.
The Epicardium Consists of a thin layer of squamous epithelial cells, covers the hearts surface. Also known as the visceral layer of the serous pericardium, the epicardium is closely integrated with the myocardium.
The heart contains 4 hollow chambers 2 upper chambers are called Atria. 2 Lower chambers are called Ventricles.
Great Vessels Attached to the heart are several large vessels that transport blood to and from the heart. They include the superior and inferior vena, pulmonary artery.
Atria Serve primarily as reservoirs, receiving blood from the body or lungs. The right and left -- are separated by a common wall of myocardium called the interatrial septum
Ventricles Serve as pumps, receiving blood from the atria and then pumping it either to the lungs (right ventricle) or the body (left ventricle).
Interventricular septum The right and left ventricles are separated by this.
Cusps or Leaflets Each valve is formed by two or 3 flaps of tissue called--
AV (atrioventricular) valve Regulates flow between the atria and the ventricles
Right AV valve Also called the tricuspid vavle (because it has 3 leaflets) prevents the backflow from the right ventricle to the right atrium
Left AV valve lso called the bicuspid valve (because it has two leaflets) or, more commonly, the mitral valve-- prevents backflow from the left ventricle to the left atrium
The semilunar valves Regulate flow between the ventricles and the great arteries.
Two semilunar valves Pulmonary Valve and Aortic Valve
Pulmonary Vavle Prevents backflow from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle
Aortic Valve Prevents backflow from the aorta to the left ventricle
Valvular Disease Heart valve that fails to prevent the backflow of blood during contraction is called imcompetent, and the condition is known as valvular insufficiency.
Emotions and heart rate Fear, grief, and anger all affect heart rate. This occurs because two almond- shaped areas of the brain, called amygdalae, are key players in the formation and storage of memories associated with emotion.
Congestive heart failure When either ventricle fails to pump effectively. This can occur because the ventricle is weakened from the myocardial infaraction.
Arrhythmias When part of the conduction pathway is injured or when part of the myocardium other than the SA node (called the ectopic focus) generates a beat. Common cardiac arrhthmias include atrial flutter, premature contractions, and ventricular fibrillation.
Angina and Myocardial Infraction Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in america today, causing almost one-half million deaths each year. The disease results when the coronary arteries become blocked or narrowed by a buildup of cholesterol and fatty deposits.
Cardiac Conduction Unique that it doesn't depend upon stimulation by extrinsic nerves to contract. It contains special pacemaker cells that allow it to contract spontaneously, an ability called automaticity.
What is the SA node The primary pacemaker. If the SA node failes to fire, pacemaker cells in the AV node or Purkinje fibers can initiate impulses, although at a slower rate. Pacemakers other than SA node are called Ectopic pacemakers. The hearts pacemakers and their firing r
SA Node Fires at 60 to 80 beats per minute
AV node Has a firing rate of 40 to 60 beats per minute
Purkinje Fibers Have a firing rate of 20 to 40 beats per minute
Cardiac Cycle The series of events that occur from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next is called ---
Cardiac cycle consists of two phases Systole (contraction) Diastole (relaxation)
Created by: kayley911



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