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Chapter 8 & 9

Joints and Muscular System.

The body contains -- joints 300
Only bone without a joint is the -- Hyoid bone in the neck
Joints are also called Articulations
Joints may be classified according to how moveable they are.. fixed, semi-movable, or freely movable.
Fixed joints Are bound by fibers and are called fibrous joints.
Semi-movable joints Are joined together by cartilage and are called cartilaginous joints
Fibrous joints Also called Synarthroses
Cartilaginous joints Two bones are joined by cartilage. These joints are slight movable.
Synovial joints Also called diarthroses- are freely movable.
Joint Capsule Extending from the periosteum of each of the of the articulating bone is a sheet of connective tissue that encloses the joint cavity
Synovial Membrane This moist, slippery membrane lines the inside of the capsule, where it secretes synovial fluid.
Joint cavity Small space between the bones allows for freedom of movement. It also contains Synovial fluid.
Articular cartilage A thin layer of hyaline cartilage covers the bone surface
Ligaments Tough cords of connective tissue help bind the bones more firmly together.
Some joints - such as the knee, shoulder, and elbow contain small sacs filled with Synovail called Bursae
The body contains-- types of snyovial joins Ball and socket joint pivot joint hinge joint saddle joint condyloid joint gliding joint
ball and socket joint the ball shaped heard of one bone fits into a cup-like socket of another bone to form this joint.
pivot joint the projection from one bone articulates with ring-shaped socket of another bone, allowing the bones to rotate.
hinge joint just like a hinge door, these joints allow only back and forth movements (flexion and extension)
condyloid joint an over convex surface on one bone fits into a similarly shaped depression on another. allows flexion and extension as well as side-to-side movement
gliding joint the two bones surfaces- which are relatively flat- slide over each other. examples are - tarsal bones of the ankle, and carpal bones of the wrist.
Movements of Synovial joints Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension, Dorsiflexion, Plantar flexion, Abduction, Adduction, Circumduction, Internal Rotation, External Rotation, Supination, Pronation, Inversion, Eversion, Protraction, Retraction
Flexion involves bending a joint so as to decrease the angle of the joint
Extension involves straightening a joint, increasing the angle between the bones
Hyperextension Is the extreme extension of a joint beyond its normally straight position
Dorsiflexion Involves moving the toes or foot upward
Plantar flexion Involves moving the toes or foot downward (toward the plantar surface)
Abduction Is the movement of a body part away from the midline of the body
Adduction Is the movement of a body part toward the midline of the body
Circumduction In circumduction the distal end of the appendage, such as the arm or leg, moves in a circle
Internal Rotation Occurs when a bone spins toward the body's midline
External Rotation Occurs when a bone spins away from the body's midline
Supination Is a movement that turns the palm upward
Pronation Is a movement that turns the palm downward
Inversion Is a foot movement that turns the sole medially, toward the other foot.
Eversion Is a foot movement that turns the sole laterally, away from the other foot
Protraction Moves a part forward
Retraction Moves a part backward
Dislocation of shoulder Shoulder is most likely to suffer a dislocation. Result from being jerked off the ground by one or more arms or from a forceful tug on the arm
Knee injury The knee is surrounded by muscles, it's injured more often than the hip
Arthritis referrs to inflammation of a joint. While theres 100 types of arthritis and related conditions
Osteoarthritis Affects 85% of people over age 70.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Is an autoimmune disease which the body's antibody attacks the synovial membranes, leading to degeneration of the articular cartilage and thickening of the synovial membrane.
Hypertrophy Enlargement of a muscle
Atrophy Decrease size of muscle
Tendon Strong fibrous cord though which a muscle attaches to a bone
Aproneurosis Flat, broad tendon that attaches a muscle to another muscle or to a bone
Direct attachment Muscle fibers merge with the periosteum of the bone, forming a strong attachment.
Indirect attachment The epimysium extends past the muscle as a tendon (a strong, fibrous cord) the tendon then merges with the periosteum
3 types of muscles Cardiac, Smooth, Skeleton
Cardiac Muscle Found in the heart. Consists of short, branching fibers that fit together at intercalated discs. appears striped, r striated, when viewed under a microscope
Smooth Muscle Found in the digestive tract, blood vessels, bladder, airways, and uterus. Does not appear striped when viewed under a microscope, so is called nonstraited Known as involuntary muscle because it contracts automatically ( such as when the digestive tract
Skeleton Muscle Attached to bone and causes movement of the body. Known as voluntary muscle because it can be contracted at will. Appears markedly striated when examined with a microscope
Inotonic Contraction Muscle changes length and moves a load, while the tension within the muscle remains the same
Isometric Contraction Tension in the muscle increases while the length stays the same.
Frontal Raises the eyebrows
Orbicularius Oculi Sphincter muscles that closes the eye when blinking or squinting.
Zygomaticus Draws the mouth upward when laughing
Orbicularis Oris Closes the mouth and purses the lips such as when kissing
Buccinator Assist in smiling and blowing (such as when playing trumpet or whistling) as well as chewing.
Chewing muscles-- Temporals, Masseter
Temporal- Aids in closing the jaw
Masseter Closes job.
Muscles that make up the head Sternocleidomastoid, Trapezius
Sternocleidomastoid flexes the head (so it sometimes called the praying muscle) Rotates head to the opposite side wen only the muscle contracts.
Trapezius Extends the head (such as when looking forward and flexes the head to one side or the other. also evaluates the shoulder
The face contains -- muscles 30
Muscles are the driving force behind the ability to.. Breathe
External Intercostal Lie superficially between the ribs; elevate the ribs during inspiration
Diaphragm Enlarges the thorax to trigger inspiration
Internal Intercostal Lie deeper than the external intercostal; depress the ribs during forced exhalation
External Oblique Compresses the abdominal organs, which aids forceful expiration, vomiting, and defecation; also allows flexion of the vertebral column and rotation and lateral bending of the trunk
Rectus Abdominis Flexes the lumbar region of the spinal column to cause bending forward at the waist; extends from the sternum to the pubic bone
Transversus Abdominis Compresses the contents of the abdomen
Internal oblique Stabilizes the spine and maintains posture, just like the external oblique muscles, also permits rotation of the waist.
Deltoid Abducts, flexes, rotates the arm; involved in swinging the arm (walking or bowling)
Pectoralis Major Flexes and adducts the upper arm, such as when climbing or hugging.
Serratus Anterior Drives all forward- reaching and pushing movements; pulls the shoulder down and forward
Latissimus Doris Adducts the humerus; extends the upper arm backward (such as when rowing or swimming); when grasping an object overhead, such as when climbing, serves to pull the body upward.
Rotator Cuff Tendons of four muscles (attached to the scapula) form the rotator cuff.
Four muscles that make up the rotator cuff Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres Minor Subscapularis (on the anterior scapula)
The muscle that fled and extend the forearm are located on the.. Humerus
Brachialis The prime mover when flexing the forearm
Biceps Brachii Assists the brachialis when flexing the forearm; also flexes the elbow and supinates the forearm (such as when opening a bottle with a corkscrew)
Triceps Brachii The prime mover when extending the forearm
Brachioradialis Helps the brachialis and the biceps brachii flex the forearm
Pronator muscles Allow the arm to pronate (palm down). A supinator muscle. Lies deep in the forearm new the elbow; it joins forces with the biceps brachii to allow supination (palms up)
The Iliopsoas flexes the.. Thigh, acting in opposition to the gluteus maximus
The term Iliopsoas refers to a combination of the following muscles Iliacus and Psoas Major
The Sartorius is the Longest muscle in the body
The adductor muscles rotate and draw the thigh in toward the body(Adduction) This group consists of the following muscles Adductor Magnus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Gracilis
The Quadriceps femoris is the Most powerful muscle in the body. Is the prime mover of the knee.
The Hamstrings are a group of muscles consisting of the following 3 muscles Biceps femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus
The gluteal muscles consist of the following three muscles Gluteus Medius Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus
Gluteus Medius Aducts and rotates the thigh outward
Gluteus Maximus The bulkiest muscle in the body; it produces the backswing of the leg when walking and provides most of the leg when walking and provides most of the power for climbing stairs.
Gluteus Minimus This muscle lies beneath the other two gluteal muscles
The gluteus medius is a common site for Intramscular injections
Muscles in the lower leg are primarily responsible for Moving the foot and ankle
The buldging calf muscle is the result of two muscles The gastrocnemius (more superficial muscle) and the Soleus (the deeper muscle)
Strongest tendons in the body The calcaneal or achilles tendon.
The extensor digitorum longus also extends the toes and turns the foot outward (eversion)
Functions of Muscular system Chemical reactions within muscle cells lead to body movement Helps maintain body posture and alignment Protects bones and internal organs Generates heat through exercise and shivering
Characteristics of Muscle tissue Excitability- receives nerve impulses and responds to the stimulus Contractility- can be shorten Extensibility- can be lengthen Elasticity- can return to normal shape after shortening or lengthening.
Components of Muscle tissue Muscles- tissue made of fibers that cause movement in organs and body parts Tendons- connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone Aponeurosis- broad sheet of connective tissue that attaches muscle to muscle.
Created by: kayley911



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