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Nervous system devel

WVSOM -- Gross Anatomy -- Development of the Nervous system

What 5 things do neural crest cells become? melanocyctes, bones and muscles of the face, nerve satellite cells, oligodendrocytes/Schwann cells and ALL ganglia
How does the neural tube form? the neural goove continues to fold
What cells follow the neural tube? neural crest cells
What does the neural tube give rise to? the entire central nervous system
What are Schwann cells? support celsl located in the peripheral nervous sytem
What are oligodendrocytes? support cells located in the brain and spinal curve
What are the parasympathetic nerves of the head? III, VII, IX and X
How many axons do Schwann cells engulf? 1
How many axons do oligodendrocytes engulf? can have many axons
What does myelnation do for us? increase the conduction speed
What cells migrate into the face and neck regions to give rise to bone, cartilage, muscles and connective tissue? neural crest cells
What do neural crest cells form in the face and neck regions? bone, cartilage, muscles, and connective tissue
What are satellite cells? support or stem cells found around ganglia. Derived from neural crest cells
What are dorsal root ganglia? all sensory cell bodies in the body
What are sensory ganglia of the cranial nerves? V,VII, IX, and X. Descendants of neural crest cells
What are the paravertebral ganglia? cell bodies of sympathetic GVE neurons going to the heart lungs, sweat glands, arrector pi muscle or somatic capillary muscle sphincters. Derived from neural crest cells
What are adrenal medulla cells? also called chromafin cells. Release norepi and epi into the blood stream. Derived from neural crest cells
What are post-synaptic parasympathetic neurons derived from? neural crest cells
What are the parasympathetic ganglia of the head? III, VII, IX and X. Dervied from neural crest cells
What are the 3 zones of the neural tube? ventricular zone, intermediate zone and marginal zone
What does the ventricular zone of the neural tube give rise to? all neurons and microglia. Eventually becomes the ependymeal layer that lines the ventricles and central canal
What does the intermediate zone differentiate into? neuroblast cells
What do the marginal zones of the neural tube contain? white matter tracts where the actual meninges project to
What does the mesenchyme surrounding the neural tube come? pia, arachoid and dura mater
What does the neural tube do as it thickens? it differentiates into the alar and basal blate separated by the sulcus limitans
What does the alar form? posterior horn
What is the posterior horn? sensory region of the spinal cord
What does basal plates form? The anterior horn
How does the medulla develop? same way as the spinal cord except it will open like a book on the anterior portion
How far does the spinal cord descend thru the vertebral canal in an embryo? runs the full length of the vertebral canal
At 6 months gestation how far does the spinal cord ascend? S1
Where is the spinal cord in the vertebral canal in a newborn? ~L3-L2 level
Where is the spinal cord in the vertebral canal in an adult? ~L1
How is the neural groove formed? the ectodermal layer of the lrilaminar embryo folds in on itself
What are the 3 distinct regions of the grainstem and brain in the fetus? prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon
What does the prosencephalon differentiate into? diencephalon and telencephalon
What is the 5 distinct regions that differentiate from the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain? Telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon and myencephalon
What does the Rhombencephalon turn into? The metencephalon and myelencephalon
What is the pontine flexture? Final bend between the metencephalon and myelencephalon that helps form the brain
What does the metencephalon turn into? pons and cerebellum
What does the myelencephalon turn into? the medulla
What does the telencephalon turn into? the cerebral hemispheres and the lateral ventricles
What does the diencephalon make up? thalamus and third ventricle
What does the mesencephalon make up? midbrain and aqueduct
What does the metencephalon make up? pons, cerebellum and fourth ventricle
What does the myelencephalon make up? medulla and fourth ventricle
What does a narrowing of the aqueduct cause? backup of fluid into the lateral and third ventricle (hydrocephalus
What separates the lateral ventricles? spetum pellucidum
What is the flow of CSF? lateral ventricles -> third ventricle -> cerebral aqueduct -> fourth ventricle -> subarachnoid space
What is holoprosencephaly? failure of the cerebral hemispheres and lateral ventricles to separate. The left and right lateral ventricles are not separated
How does the cerebral cortex develop? grows much larger than the rest and takes on a “c-shaped” appearance as it enlarges
Why is there an enlargement of the cerebral cortex? proliferation of nerve cells to form mature neurons of the brain form the inside -> out
What happens as the telencephalon grows larger? gets wrinkly and forms distinct sulci, and gyri on the surface as well as the frontal, temporal, insular and occipital lobes
How does the olfactory tract form? develops as an extension of the frontal lobe.
Where do the olfactory neurons extend to? olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity
How do the eyes form? retina is directly connected to the diencephalon and then induces the formation of the lens from epidermal tissue. Retina is actually a part of the CNS
What are the 4 types of spina bifida? occulta, meningocele, meningomyelocele and myeloschisis
What is Spina Bifida meningocele? bulb of dura and arachnoid bulging out but spinal cord is still ok
What causes spina bifida? failure of the caudal pore to close
What is spina bifida occulta? failure of the arch to close. Most common.
What is meningomyelocele? bulb of dura, arachnoid and spinal cord all bulge out
What is myeloschisis? Open spinal cord. Surface tissue is the spinal cord
What is a Meningocele? arachnoid and dura mater out of the occipital lobe
What is meningoencephalocele? pare of cerebellum is out of the cranium
What is meningohydroencephalocele? dura mater, occipital lobe as well as ventricle bulges out
What is anecehpaly? large defect of cranial neuropore. Cerebral hemispheres fail to form
What is agenesis of the corpus callosum? there is a complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum.
What is the Arnold chiari malformation? extension of the cerebellum thru the foramen magnum possibly compressing vital structures of the medulla
Created by: tjamrose