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Mod 1 Ch 21

Ch. 21 Cells pg. 500 - 510

cell most basic unit of life. Considered the building block of the human body
3 components of cells 1. cell membrane 2. cytoplasm 3. nucleus
cell membrane -has receptors that identify cell (lock and key) -helps in communication between cells -regulates movement in and out of cell -some have cilia or flagella
cytoplasm fluid inside cell that contains organelles
nucleus -controls every organelle in cytoplasm -contains chromatin -DNA is contained in chromosomes of the cell
Endoplasmic Retuiculum -organelle 1. rough - ribosomes attached 2. smooth - no ribosomes - responsible for transporting protein
ribosomes -organelle -protein factory of the cell that are responsible for transporting proteins
Golgi apparatus -organelle -tiny flattened sacs that help process and package chemicals in the cell
Mitochondria -organelle -"powerhouse" of the cell, responsible for the production of ATP
Lysosomes -organelle -digestive bags in the cell
centrioles -organelle -small paired rods important in cellular division
DNA -mandatory for cell reproduction -provides the cell's genetic make-up
interstitial fluid makes up empty space between cells
cell division mitosis and cytokinesis
5 stages of Mitosis 1. Prophase 2. Prometaphase 3. Metaphase 4. Anaphase 5. Telophase
Prophase centrioles have replicated, moved to opposite ends of the cell creating spindle fibers between them
Prometaphase centrioles move to the poles of the cell
Metaphase Chromosomes move to the middle and line up along the center of the cell
Anaphase 2 daughter chromosomes (chromatids) move to the opposite ends
Telophase cytoplasm division occurs and mitosis is completed
epithelial tissue covers the body and lines many parts of the body1.
connective tissue most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the body
3 types of muscle tissue 1. voluntary / striated 2. Involuntary / smooth 3. cardiac
nerve tissue allows rapid communication between various parts of the body
3 types of passive transport (does not require energy) 1. diffusion 2. osmosis 3. filtration
diffusion - type of passive transport - substance scatters throughout available space
osmosis - type of passive transport - water moves from area of high concentration to area of low concentration
filtration - type of passive transport - requires form of pressure - movement of water and solutes due to hudrostatic pressure
2 types of active transport (requires energy) 1. phagocytosis (eats) 2. pinocytosis (drinks)
phagocytosis cell engulfs or "eats" solid particles such as bacteria
pinocytosis "drinks"
genetics study of the hereditary make-up of animals and plants
genes made up of DNA
Genetic disorders 1. albinism 2. color deficiency 3. hemophilia
albinism - genetic disorder - congenital but non-pathological disorder -recessive gene mutation causes lack of pigment in hair, skin, and nails
color deficiency - AKA color blindness - genetic disorder - difficulty in distinguishing reds and greens - inherited, sex-linked disorder usually passed from mother to son
hemophilia - genetic disorder - sex-linked disorder in which blood coagulation time is greatly increased
Created by: vanstellee



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