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Chapter 6 &7

Bones/Skeletal System.

QuestionAnswer
Components of the skeletal system Bones Ligaments Tendons
Hard connective tissue containing calcium salts Bone
Band of fibrous connective tissues that connects bones to bones Ligaments
Connective tissues that connects muscles to bones Tendons
Additional types of fractures Impacted Colles
When broken ends of the bone are forced into each other Impacted
Fracture of the radius just above the wrist with the bone displaced; causes a "hump" in the arm just above the wrist. Colles
Adult human body has ---- bones 206
What are long bones These bones have a very long axis and are longer than they are wide (example: femur of the thigh and the humerus of the arm)
What are short bones About as broad as they are long, these tend to be shaped like cubes. (example: carpal bones of the wrist and the tarsal bones of the ankle)
What are flat bones These thin, flat, often curved bones protect organs, such as the bones of the skull, the ribs, and the breastbone (sternum)
What are irregular bones Often clustered in groups, these bones come in various sizes and shapes. (example: vertebrae and facial bones)
Epiphysis The head end of the long bone
Diaphysis The central shaft-like portion of the bone
Articular cartilage Covering the surface of the epiphysis is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage
Medullary cavity The central hollow portion
Endosteum The inside of the medullary cavity is lined with a thin epithelial
Types of bone tissue Spongy or Cancellous bone.
Spongy tissue found in the ends of long bones and in the middle of most other bones
Compact bone Dense and solid. Its density offers strength, which is why it forms the shafts of long bones and the outer surfaces of other bones.
Layers of compact bone Lamellae Haversian or Osteonic canal Osteon
Tiny gaps between rings of lamellae Lacunae
Microscopic passageways Calaniculi
Transverse passageways Volkmann's canals
Types of bone marrow Red and yellow bone marrow
Red bone marrow Bone marrow charged with producing red blood cells. nearly all of a child's bones contain red blood marrow
Yellow bone marrow Overtime, red marrow is gradually replaced with fatty yellow marrow.
In adults red marrow can only be found in the ribs, sternum, vertebrae, skull, pelvis, and the upper parts of both the humerus (arm) and femur ( thigh). All other bones contain yellow marrow.
Types of bone fractures Simple Compound Greenstick Comminuted Spiral
The bone remains aligned and the surrounding tissue is intact Simple fracture
The bone has pierced the skin. Compound fracture
The fracture is incomplete, typically occurs in young children. Greenstick fracture
Bone breaks into pieces. Comminuted fracture
Fracture line spirals around the bone Spiral fracture.`
A break in a bone is called Fracture
Broken bones can be manipulated into their original position without surgery. this is called Closed reduction
Surgery is needed to reposition the bones with screws, pins, or plates to stabilize the bones. Open reduction.
Uncomplicated fractures heal in 8-12 weeks
Fracture repair Blood vessels in the bone are torn resulting in bleeding and the formation of a clot Collagen and fibrocartilage are deposited in the tissue forming callus Bone-forming cells produce Remoldeling eventually replaces the callus tissue with bone.
80 comprise upright, central supporting axis of the body, includes the skull, rib cage, and vertebral colum Axis Skeleton
126 bones make up the bones of the limbs and the pelvic and shoulder area Appendicular skeleton
Axial Skeleton The skull has -- bones 22
Cranium has -- bones 8 Frontal (1) Parietal (2) Temporal (2) Occipital (1) Sphenoid (1) Ethmoid (1)
Face has -- bones 14 Nasal (2) Maxillary (2) Zygomactic (2) Mandible (1) Lacrimal (2) Palatine (2) Inferior nasal conchae (2) Vomer (1)
Ear has -- bones 6 Malleus (2) Incus (2) Stapes (2)
Hyoid has -- bone 1
Vertebral colum has -- bones 26 Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar vertebrae (5) Sacrum (1) Coccyx (1)
Thoracic age has -- bones 25 Sternum (1) Ribs (24)
Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral girdle has -- bones 4 Scapula (2) Clavicle (2)
Upper limbs has -- bones 60 Humerus (2) Radius (2) Ulna (2) Carpals (16) Metacarpals (10) Phalanges (28)
Pelvic girdle has -- bones 2 Coxal (2)
Lower limbs has -- bones 60 Femur (2) Patella (2) Tibia (2) Tarsals (4) Metatarsals (10) Phalanges (28)
Partial bones Join together at the top of the head to form the top and sides of the cranial cavity
Frontal bone Forms the forehead and the roof of the eye sockets
Occipital bone Forms the rear of the skull
Temporal bones Form the sides of the cranium and part of the cranial floor; also contain the structures of the inner and middle ear
Inner and middle ear External Auditory Meatus (opening into ear) Mastoid process (lump behind ear) Zygomatic arch (cheekbone)
Sphenoid bone Forms a key part of the cranial floor as well as the floor and side walls of the orbits
Ethmoid bone Contributes to the walls of the orbits, the roof and walls of the nasal cavity, and the nasal septum
The anterior fontanel The largest fontanel
Posterior (occipital) fontanel The smallest fontanel
Consists of 33 vertebrae, hold the head and torso upright, serves as an attachment point for the legs and encases the spinal cord- Vertebral column
5 Sections of the vertebral column Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacrum Coccyx
Cervical vertebrae 7 vertebrae C1-C7
Thoracic vertebrae 12 vertebrae T1-T12
Lumbar vertebrae 5 vertebrae L1-L5
Sacrum 5 fused vertebrae S1
Coccyx 4 fused vertebrae
Between each vertebra is an Intervertebral disc.- designed to support weight and absorb shock.
The intervertebral disc consists of 2 parts. A gel- like core, called the nucleus pulposus A ring of tough fibrocartilage, called the annulus fibrosus.
Abnormal spinal curvatures Scoliosis Kyphosis or hunchback Lordosis or swayback
Sternum has 3 regions Manubrium Body Xiphoid process.
Manubrium This is the broadest portion. Suprasternal notch (at the top of the manubrium between the two clavicles) is easily palpated.
Body This is the longest portion; it joins the manubrium at the sternal angle (also called the angle of Louis), which is also the location of the second rib.
Xiphoid process An important landmark for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the xiphoid process provides an attachment point for some abdominal muscles
How many pairs of ribs attach to the vertebral column 12
Ribs 1 to 7 are called True ribs
Ribs 8-10 are called False ribs
Ribs 11 and 12 are called Floating ribs
The lower edges of the Thoracic cage are called Costal margins
The ribs protect Spleen, Liver, and a portion of the kidneys.
Clavicle Collarbone
Scapula Shoulder blade
Most commonly broken bone in the body Clavicle
Acromion process This extension of the scapula articulates with the clavicle; it is the only point where the arm and the scapula attach to the rest of the skeleton
Coracoid process This finger- like process provides a point of attachment for some of the muscles of the arm
Glenoid cavity This shallow socket articulates with the head of the humerus (upper arm bone)
Upper limb consists of Humerus (upper arm bone), the radius and the ulna (the bones of the lower arm), and the carpals (the bones of the hand)
The humerus is the long bone of the upper arm it contains these features Head Olecranon fossa Olecranon process
Head The enlarged end of this bone is covered with articular cartilage; it articulates with the glenoid cavity of the capula.
Olecranon fossa This is a depression on the posterior side of the humerus
Olecranon process This is the bony point of the elbow; it slides in the olecranon fossa when the arm is extended.
The bony bumps that can be felt at the wrist Styloid processes of the radius and ulna
Proimal head Of the radius is a distinctive disc that rotates on the humerus when the palm is turned forward and back
Radial tuberosity Where the biceps muscle attaches to the bone.
Ulna Bone of the lower arm; it is longer than the radius
The hand consists of what Wrist, palm, and fingers
The fingers are formed by bones called Phalanges
5 metacarpal bones form the palm of the hand
8 carpal bones arranged in 2 rows of 4 bones- form the wrist.
A large, flaring section you can feel under the skin Ilium
The lower posterior portion Ischium
The most anterior portion that joins with the other pubis at the symphysis pubis, a disc of cartilage that separates the two pubic bones Pubis
The upper, outer edge of the ilium Iliac crest
A depression that houses the head of the femur to form the "hip socket" Acetabulum
Projection into the pelvic cavity Ischial spine
Supports your body when you're sitting Ischial tuberosity
Each of the 2 larger bones of the hip is called Os coxae
The combination of the Os coxae and the sacrum is known as the Pelvis
Lower limbs consist of Femur (thigh bone), patella (knee cap), tibia, fibula (bones of the lower leg), and foot.
Longest and strongest bone in the body Femur
Widest points of the femur at the knee Medial and lateral epicondyle
Known as the knee cap Patella
What forms toes Phalanges
The great toe (big toe) is called what Hallux
Bones that form the middle portion of the foot Metatarsals
Second largest tarsal bone is the Talus
The largest tarsal bone is Calcaneus
Created by: kayley911