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Chapter 5

Integumentary System

Types of Tissue Epithelial Connective Nervous Muscular
What is Epithelial Surface tissue, example: skin, inside of mouth and body cavities. Contains no blood vessels, so must depend on connective tissue beneath it for oxygen and nutrients.
Functions of Epithelial Protection Absorption Filtration Secretion
Classification of Epithelial Tissue By cell shape- (squamous, cuboidal, columnar) By layer- (simple and stratified epithelia)
Glandular Epithelium Contains exocrine glands that secrete productions into ducts that empty to the surface of the body or into an organ. Example: tears, sweat glands, gastric juices. Contains endocrine glands that are ductless; they release hormones into the blood.
Connective Tissue Most varied of all tissues; comes in many different forms.
3 types of loose connective tissue Areolar (lies beneath almost all epithelia) Adipose (contains mostly fat cells) Reticular (found in the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow)
Dense Connective tissue includes Tendons, ligaments, and fascia
Cartilage rubbery, flexible matrix. 3 kinds hyaline (found at the ends of moveable joints and in the fetal skeleton) Fibrocartilage (found in discs between vertebrae in spine and in the knee joint) Elastic ( found in external ear and epiglottis)
Bone Osseous tissue; also called hard tissue
Blood Unique because it is a fluid and has no fiber, but is still classified as connective tissue.
Nervous tissue Has a degree of excitability and conductivity which allows for rapid communication with other parts of the body. Found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Contains 2 kinds of cells - neurons and neuroglia Provides network to carry nerve impulses.
3 types of Muscles tissue Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle.
Skeletal muscle Attaches to bone and moves the body. Voluntary means you have control over the movements.
Cardiac muscle Found only in the heart; contains intercalated disks for stimulation and contraction involuntary muscle- means you cannot control it.
Smooth muscle Involuntary muscle; lines the walls of many organs in the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts. It is also present in the walls of the blood vessels to help control blood pressure.
Types of membranes Mucous Cutaneous Serous
Mucous membrane Line body surfaces that open directly to the exterior; includes respiratory, urinary, digestive, and reproductive tracts. Secrete mucus that acts as a protestant and lubricant.
Cutaneous membrane Another name for skin
Serous membrane lines some body cavities and covers organs within the cavity; secretes a thin fluid so movement can occur without friction; Parietal membrane lines the wall of a body cavity Visceral membrane covers organs in the cavity.
Several types of connective tissue membranes. Synovial membranes found in the joint cavities Meninges that cover the brain and spinal cord Fascia membranes that separate or bind muscles Periosteum membrane that surrounds the bone Perichondrium membrane that surrounds cartilage
Tissue Group of similar cells that perform a common function
Stem Cells Specialized a cell that can differentiate into many different types of cells
Epithelium The layer of cells forming the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer of mucous and serous membranes
Granulation tissue Newly formed tissue inside a wound.
Mucous membrane Epithelial membrane that lines the body surfaces that open directly to the body's exterior.
Osseous tissue Bone tissue
Squamous epithelium Epithelial tissue consisting of thin, flat cells
Serous membrane Membrane composed of simple squamous epithelium resting on the thin layer of areolar connective tissue; lines also cover many of the organs in those cavities.
4 types of tissue Epithelial Connective Nervous Muscular
Epithelial Tissue Is a continuous sheet of tightly packed cells; it covers the body's surface, lines the body cavities and many of the organs, and forms certain glands. The key functions of the tissue involves protection, absorption, filtration, and secretion.
Connective Tissue Ranging from tough cords to elastic sheets to fluid- connective tissues performs a variety of tasks.
Nervous Tissue Has a high degree of excitability and conductivity more so than other tissues, it's these characteristics that allow it to communicate rapidly with other parts of the body. Nervous tissue is found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Muscular Tissue Consists of elongated cells that contract in response to stimulation. The body contains three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth.
Key functions of Epithelial Tissue Protection Absorption Filtration Secretion
3 cell shapes found in the epithelial tissue Squamous- these cells are flat and plate-like (scaly) Cuboidal- These cells are cube-shaped and contain cytoplasm and squamous cells Columnar- Higher than they are wide, columnar cells are tall and cylindrical.
Difference between simple and stratified epithelia Simple - every cell touches the basement membrane stratified- some cells stack on top of other cells and the upper layers of cells don't touch the basement membrane.
Two types of glands located in glandular epithelium Exocrine Endocrine
Types of connective tissue Collagenous fibers Reticular fibers Elastic fibers
Collagenous Fibers These are strong and flexible but resist stretching; these are the most abundant fibers.
Reticular Fibers These occur in networks and support small structures such as capillaries and nerve fibers
Elastic Fibers Made of proteins called Elastin, these fibers can stretch and recoil like a rubber band.
How blood is differs from other connective tissues Blood is unique amount the connective tissues in that it exists as a fluid. Composed of various types of blood cells surrounded by a liquid matrix ( called plasma), blood transports cells and dissolved substances from one part of the body to another unlik
Characteristics of Nervous tissue Excitability and Conductivity.- these characteristics communicate rapidly with other parts of the body.
Steps of tissue repair 1. When cut occurs, the severed blood vessels bleed into the wound. 2. A blood clot forms. 3. The healthy tissue surrounding the wound sends blood,nurtrients, proteins, and other materials for growing new tissue 4. Surface area generates new cells.
Dermis The inner layer, deeper layer composed of connective tissue.
Epidermis Outermost layer- consists of stratified squamous epithelial tissue.
"Hypodermis" A.K.A subcutaneous
Apocrine glands Glands located mainly in the axillary and anogenital areas that secrete sweat in response to stress and sexual stimulation
Ceruminous gland Glad in the external ear canal that secretes waxy cerumen
Eccrine glands Glands located throughout the body that secretes sweat directly onto the skin's surface, which helps control temperature.
Hair follicle The sheath of epidermis surrounding each hair
Keratin A tough, fibrous protein that provides structural strength to the skin, hair and nails
Melanin Pigment produced by melanocytes that gives color to the hair and skin
Sebaceous gland Glands that secrete an oily substance called sebum into each hair follicle
Stratum basale Innermost layer of the epidermis, where new skin cells are germinated
Stratum corneum The innermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead, flattened cells called keratinocytes
Subcutaneous Beneath the skin.
Role of Melanin Scattered throughout the basal layer of the epidermis are cells called melanocytes- these speical cells produce a substance called melanin.
A persons skin color is determined by the amount, and type of what? Melanin.
What is Cyanosis Skin tone- blue tint Cause- a deficiency of oxygen in circulating blood.
What is Jaundice Skin tone- Yellow discoloration of skin and the whites of the eyes. Cause- Impaired liver function
What is Bronzing Skin tone- Golden brown skin color Cause- A deficiency of hormones from the adrenal glad, such as occurs with addison disease.
What is Albinism Skin tone- Extremely pale skin Cause- Condition lack of melanin
What is Erythema Skin tone- Abnormal redness Cause- Increased blood flow in dilated blood vessels close the the skin's surface; may result from heat, exercise, or emotions such as embarrassment or anger.
What is Pollar Skin tone- Pale skin Cause- Blood flow, such as occurs from cold temps, fear or emotional stress, low blood pressure, or blood loss.
What is Bruise Skin tone- Bluish, black, yellowish mark on the skin.
Functions of the skin Protection Barrier Vitamin D production Sensory Perception Thermoregulation
Protection Prevents microorganisms, as well as many harmful chemicals, from invading the body.
Barrier Keeps the body from absorbing excess water, such as when swimming or bathing
Vitamin D Production Initiates the production of vitamin D when exposed to UV light.
Sensory Perception Contains millions of sensory nerve fibers, allowing for perception of temperature, touch, pressure, pain and vibration
Thermoregulation Contains nerves that cause blood vessels in the skin to dilate or constrict to regulate heat loss.
Hair occurs everywhere in the body except for a few locations.. Palms Soles Lips Nipples and some areas of the genitals
The shaft Is the part of the hair that extends above the skins surface.
Hair follicle Each hair lies within a sheath of epidermis. Hair follicles have rich nerve and blood supply
Barried in the dermis is the hair Bulb or root.
At the base of the hair is a cluster of connective tissue and blood vessles called Papilla
Attached to each hair follicle is a small bundle of smooth muscle called Also causes you to get goose bumps. Arrector pill. (standing on end)
2 types of Melanin Eumelanin Pheomelanin
Excessive hair loss Alopecia
Nails consist of densely packed, heavily keratinized epithelia cells
Cuticle A fold of skin, it surrounds the nail body
Nail body The visible part of the nail
Lunula Is a crescent shaped white area at the base of the nail
Nail bed Is the layer of epithelium under the nail. It normally appears pink because of the rich blood supply in the area
Nail root Is the proximal end of the nail; Its hidden underneath overlying tissue.
Abnormal nail changes Clubbing Cyanosis Glattened or concave nail beds Dark lines beneath the nail White nails Yellowish thickened slow growing nails Pale nail beds
Cyanosis often is the first sign of oxygen deficiency
Clubbing Long-term oxygen deficency usually due to lung disease.
Dark lines beneath the nail May indicate melanoma in lighter-skinned indiviuals, although such lines may be normal in individuals with dark skin.
White nails May occur in individuals with lung diseases such as emphysema
Pale nail beds May be sign of anemia
Types of glands associated with skin Sweat Sebaceous Ceruminous
Skin of an adult contains 3 to 4 million sweat glands
Two types of sweat glands Eccrine glands Apocrine Glands
Eccring gland Contain a duct that leads from secretory portion, through the dermis and epidermis and onto the skins surface. Plays chief role in helping the body maintain a constant core temp and also helps the body eliminate wastes.
Apocrine gland Contains a duct that leads to a hair follicle
Sebaceous glands Secrete an oily substance called Sebum
Ceruminous gland Which exist in the external ear canal
3 types of burns First degree Second degree Third degree.
First degree burn Partial- Thickness burn- Superficial Involves only the epidermis Causes redness, slight swelling, and pain Often results from Sunlight (sunburn)
Second degree burn Partial thickness- Deep Involves the epidermis as well as part of the dermis Results in blisters, severe pain, and swelling May scar May appear red, white or tan
Third Degree burn Full thickness burn Extends through the epidermis and dermis and into the subcutaneous layer May not be painful initially because of the destruction of nerve endings. May appear white or black or leathery Often requires skin grafts.
3 types of skin cancers Basal Cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Malignant Melanoma
Basal Cell Carinoma The most common type of skin cancer Seldom metastasizes, so is the least dangerous Arises from the cell of the stratum basale, typically on the nose or face Lesion first appears as a small shiny bump
Squamous cell carcinoma Arises in the epidermis and is slow growing Often occurs on the scalp, forehead, back of hands, and top of ears. Has a raised, red, scaly appearance Some forms may metastasize
Malignant melanoma Most deadly of all skin cancers Sometimes develops from melanocytes of preexisting mole metastasizes quickly and is often fatal when not treated early Risk is greatest in individuals who had severe sunburns as a child.
Disorders of the Integumentary System Acne Dermatitis Eczema Impetigo Psoriasis Tina Urticaria
Acne Inflammation of the sebaceous glands, especially during puberty.
Dermatitis Inflammation of the skin characterized by itching and redness, often the result of exposure to chemicals or toxins (poison ivy)
Eczema Itchy, red rash caused by an allergy.
Psoriasis A recurring skin disorder characterized by red papules and scaly silvery plaques with sharply defined borders
Tinea Any fungal infection of the skin. occurs in moist areas.
Urticaria Allergic reaction resulting in multiple red patches that are intensely itchy.
Created by: kayley911



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