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Euro Chapter 18

European History

Describe the dominant worldview at the beginning of the 16th century. motionless earth at the center of the universe (geocentric), 10 crystal spheres around it, angels kept spheres moving in perfect circles, basically Aristotle/Ptolemy's views (humanism) combined with Christian theology.
Describe the Copernican Hypothesis. Created by Copernicus, said it was actually a heliocentric universe, that the stars were fixed in place, the earth rotated, universe was extremely large, and earth was just another planet.
Why/Who attacked the Copernican Hypothesis? Calvinists and Lutherans especially because it went against the Scriptures, and denied heaven being above earth/the traditional idea of crystal spheres.
Who was Tycho Brahe? Astronomer, agreed earth rotated/heliocentric, collected lot of data but weak in math, large observatory.
Who was Johann Kepler? Brahe's assistant, discovered three laws of planetary motion: plants have elliptical orbits, don't move in uniform speed in orbits, time takes to complete an orbit directly related to distance from sun.
Who was Galileo Galilei? Conducted controlled experiments, developed law of inertia, used telescope to look at moons of Jupiter, accused of heresy and recanted his claims.
Who was Issac Newton? Law of universal gravitation: everything is attracted to everything else, based on mathematical relationship and mass, made key synthesis of Kepler and Galileo's ideas, believed in alchemy, wrote principia, thought he was religious
Discuss various factors contributing to growth and development of the scientific revolution. Permanent universities established, recovery of mathematical texts (renaissance stimulation), navigational problems, developing better ways of obtaining knowledge.
Bacon? Developed empiricism: collect specimins and analyze them, big on observing and doing experiments, wanted people to really pursue new knowledge.
Descatres? Cartesian dualism: everything is made up of the physical and of the mind, combined observations and investigations with the pursuit of laws expressed mathematically. Saw correspondence between geometry and algebra.
Impact of Scientific Revolution? Rise of international scientific community, modern scientific method (observe, hypothesize, predict, experiment), sex barriers, overseas trade facilitated.
Emergence of Enlightenment? de Fontenelle - idea of progress (intellectual growth stimulates progress, better society). Began to question religious "fact" - skepticism. Bayle - big skeptic. Becomes more rational. Locke - tabula rasa (mind completely dictated by experiences/society)
Philosophes? group of intellectuals who believed they were bringing the light of knowledge to society, means philosopher, intellectual curiosity.
Important Philosophes? Montesquieu: wrote plays/made it interesting, idea of separation of powers to avoid depotism, like parlimentes (courts in France). Voltaire: wrote many novels, tolerant, was abused/treated unfairly, like absolutism, against church. Diderot: edited encycl.
Enlightenment in other parts of Europe than France? intellectual revival stimulated by creation of first public education system, salons in other countries, rebels embrace Enlightenment. Hume --> skepticism.
Describe reading revolutions and salons. Reading revolution --> developed new way of reading; now individual, rapid, and books other than the bible, read bc of curiosity etc. Salons: drawing rooms where wealthy women would host elites to discuss important ideas of the time. influential.
Created by: 12kitkat34