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Musculoskeletal Review

What are the five regions of the vertebral column? Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx
What are the four different types of bones? short, irregular, flat, long
What are the functions of bones? Provide framework of body, protect internal organs, produce blood cells, store calcium/other minerals, provide points of attachment
What are the functions of muscle? contribute to posture, produce heat, protect internal organs, primarily movement
What are the three different types of muscle? skeletal (voluntary/striated), cardiac, smooth (involuntary/visceral)
What are the three different types of ribs? true, false, floating
What are the three divisions of the pelvis? ilium, ischium, pubis
What does the appendicular skeleton consist of? bones of the upper and lower limbs, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle
What are the three regions of the axial skeleton? skull, rib cage, vertebral column
What does the pectoral girdle consist of? clavicle, scapula
What is a fontanel? unossified membrane lying between the cranial bones
What is an orthopedist? physician who specializes in the diagnoses and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
What is muscular dystrophy? genetic disease, gradual atrophy and weakening of muscle tissue
What is myasthenia gravis? neuromuscular disorder, muscle weakness, leads to eventual loss of function
What is rheumatoid arthritis? systemic disease, results in crippling deformities
periosteum A dense fibrous membrane that covers the surface of bone
tendon A strap composed of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone
Lordosis Abnormal inward curvature of the spine
Scoliosis Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
Kyphosis An exaggerated outward curvature of the thoracic vertebrae
appendage Any body part attached to a main structure
talipes Any deformity of the foot; also called club foot
ligament Band of connective tissue that connects bone to bone
Osteoporosis Bone pores or cavities resulting from a decrease in bone density
sternum Breast bone
flexion Decreases the angle of a joint
crepitation Dry grating sound caused by bones rubbing together
dorsiflexion Elevates the foot
luminectomy Excision of the posterior arch of a vertebrae
Podiatry Foot treatment
diarthrosis freely movable joints
synarthrosis Immovable joints
exacerbation Increase in severity of a disease
extension Increases the anlge of a joint
claudication Lameness, limping
cruciate ligament ligaments that form an X
hypotonia Loss of muscular tone
plantar flexion Lowers the foot
bone mineral density (BMD) Measures bone density
abduction Moves away from the midline
adduction Moves closer to the midline
inversion Moves the sole of the foot inward
eversion Moves the sole of the foot outward
strain Muscular trauma caused by violent contraction or an excessive forcible stretch
subluxation Partial or incomplete dislocation
reduction Procedure that restores bone to its normal position
hematopoiesis Production and development of blood cells
arthrocentesis Puncture of a joint space
myelography Radiography of the spinal cord
open reduction Reduction procedure that treats bone fractures using surgery
closed reduction Reduction procedure that uses manipulation
muscular tissue Refers to all contractile tissue of the body
amphiarthrosis Slightly movable joints
torticollis Stiff neck caused by spasmodic contraction of the neck muscle
ankylosis Stiffening and immobility of a joint
sprain Tearing of ligament tissue
ilium The lateral flaring portion of the hip bone
ischium The lower part of the hip bone
agonist the muscle that produces the movement
antagonist The muscle that relaxes in order to allow a movement
joint/articulation The place at which two bones meet
pubis The third portion of the hip bone
calcium supplements Treat and prevent hypocalcemia
pronation Turns the palm down
supination Turns the palm up
Created by: spencertasha