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CH. 1

Tissues, Nervous and Skeletal System

Four tissue types... 1)Epithelial2)Connective3)Muscle4)Neural
Epithelial tissue includes... epitheliaglands
Epithelial tissue Characteristics: highly cellularavascular
What are epithelia? cells that cover an exposed surface or line an internal cavity or passageway
Functions of epithelia 1) Provide physical protection (cover all surfaces)2)Anything that enters or exits the body must travel through an epithelium (epithelia control permeability)
Functions of Connective Tissue The internal framework of the bodyLayers of connective tissues connect the organs within the body cavities and provide: Provide stability Maintain organ positions Provide a connecting point for nerves and blood vessels
Main components of Connective Tissue 1) Special cells 2) Extracellular protein fibers3) Ground substance – a varying density fluid.
Functions of CT Transporting fluid and dissolved materials (blood)Protecting organs (bone)Supporting, surrounding, and connecting other tissues (tendons)Storing energy (RBCs)Defending the body from microorganisms
Classification of Connective Tissues 1) CT proper2) Fluid CT3) Supporting CT
CT proper contains... varying cells and fibers in a syrupy ground substance. e.g. Tendons, ligaments
Types of CT proper 1)Loose CT2)Dense CT
What is Loose CT, and where is it found? The bodies packing materialsi) High amount of ground substanceFound between organs, surrounding blood vessels, and under epithelia
Types of Loose CT 1) Areolar tissue2) Adipose tissue (fat)3) Reticular tissue
What does Areolar tissue do? Surrounds and protects organs
What is Adipose and where is it found? Adipocytes make up most of adipose tissue. It cushions shock, stores energy (lipids), and insulates the body from heat loss. Found:under the skin of the groin, sides, buttocks and breasts, and surrounding organs
What does Reticular tissue do? Provides supportive framework(bone marrow, spleen, liver, and lymph nodes)
What is Dense CT? Protein fibers, mostly collagen
What are the types of Dense CT? Dense Regular CTDense Irregular CT
What are Dense Regular CT? tightly packed collagen fibers aligned parallel to applied forces
Where is Dense Regular CT found? Tendons – long, relatively thin connections of muscle to bone.Aponeuroses – broad, flat connections of muscles to other structures.Elastic tissue – contains both collagen and elastic fibersLigaments long, thin attachments of bone to bone.
What is Dense Irregular CT? collagen fibers, arranged in a meshwork rather than in parallel rows.
Where is Dense Irregular CT found? The dermis of the skin.Surrounding internal organs as a fibrous capsule.
What is Fluid CT? contains very special cells in a fluid ground substance, and is found in tubes
Where is Fluid CT found? Blood and lymph
What formed elements are in blood? Red blood cell (erythrocyte) – carry oxygen.White blood cell (leukocyte) – defense of the body from microorganismsPlatelets – clotting the blood and closing of breaks in blood vessels
What is lymph? Formed as interstitial fluid is collected into lymphatic vessels to be brought back to the blood vessels.There are usually very few cells in lymph.
What is supporting CT and what does it do? one special cell type in a solid ground substance (insoluble calcium salts) and high fiber.provides the framework that supports the rest of the body
What are the types of supporting CT? Cartilage and Bone
What are the types of cartilage? 1)Hyaline cartilage 2)Elastic cartilage 3)fibrocartilage
What is Hyaline cartilage? The most common type of cartilage.It is a tough, flexible tissue, but is the weakest type of cartilage.
Where is Hyaline cartilage found? Costal cartilage – between ribs and sternum.Respiratory cartilage – along the conducting portion of the respiratory tract.Articular cartilage – covering the ends of bones in joints.
Where is Elastic cartilage found? The flap (pinna) of the external ear, the epiglottis, the airway to the middle ear (auditory tube), and some of the cartilages of the larynx.
What is Fibrocartilage? The strongest of the cartilages. Has very little substance and an abundance of collagen fibers ground.The structure helps it resist compression, absorb shock, and prevent bone-to-bone damage.
Where is Fibrocartilage? Locations are between the vertebrae, between the bones of the pelvis, and within a few joints.
What is bone made of? osseous tissue1) Is about two-thirds solid ground substance in the form of calcium salts2) The other one-third is cells, called osteocytes and collagen fibers.
What are the types of muscle tissue? 1)Skeletal Muscle Tissue2)Cardiac Muscle Tissue3)Smooth Muscle Tissue
Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle Tissue? Muscle fibers, (extremely long)are slender cells.Highly organized proteins called actin and myosin.Striated voluntary muscle.The fibers are attached to bones of the skeleton and cause movement of the skeleton when they contract.
What is the types of muscle Cardiac Muscle Tissue is, and what makes it up? Striated involuntary muscleCardiac muscle cells-(smaller than skeletal muscle fibers)
What are Intercalated discs, and what do they do? they are systems of intercellular junctions that bind the cardiac tissue together (physically)
What are Gap Junctions? Gap junctions allow the cardiac tissue to coordinate with one another. (electrically)
What are Pacemaker cells? Pacemaker cells regulate the contractions of the heart.
Where is Smooth muscle tissue found, and what are its characteristics? Nonstriated involuntary muscle.Found in the walls of hollow organs and blood vessels. The cells are much smaller, uninucleated.
What are pacesetter cells? Pacesetter cells control contractions like wavelike contractions of the stomach.
Created by: avn