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Chapter 1 &3

Consists of Skin, Hair, and Nails. Integumentary System
Consists of Pituitary gland, Adrenals, Pancreas, Thyroid, Parathyroid, and other organs. Endocrine System
Farthest from the point of orgin. Distal
Closest to the point of orgin. Proximal
Away from the body's midline. Lateral
Toward the body's middle. Medial
Superior Above
Anterior (Ventral) Toward the front of the body
Posterior (Dorsal) Toward the back of the body
Superficial At or near the body's surface
Deep Away from the body's surface
Inferior Below
Divides the body lengthwise into right and left sides. Sagittal Plane
Divides the body horizontally into upper and lower portions. Transverse Plane
Divides the body lengthwise into anterior and posterior portions. Frontal Plane
Forehead Frontal
Cephalic Head
Orbital Eye
Deltoid Shoulder
Axillary Armpit
Brachial Arm
Mammary Breast
Antecubital Front of elbow
Antebrachial Forearm
Digital Fingers
Patellar Knee
Inguinal Groin
Tarsal Ankle
Cranial Head
Otic Ear
Occipital Back of head
Scapular Shoulder blade
Vertebral Column Spine
Lumbar Lower back
Sacral Buttcrack region
Gluteal Buttocks (Cheeks)
Perineal Between legs
Popliteal Back of knee
Calcaneal Heel
Plantar Sole of feet
Located at front of the body consists of 2 compartments (thoracic and abdominopelvic) which are separated by the diaphragm Ventral Cavity
Surrounded by ribs and chest muscles subdivided into 2 pleural cavities (each containing a lung and the mediastinum) Mediastinum contains the heart, large vessles of the heart, trachea, esophagus, lymph nodes, and other blood vessles and nerves Thoracic Cavity
Subdivided into abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity The abdominal cavity contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver and other organs The pelvic cavity contains the bladder, some of the reproductive organs, and the rectum Abdominopelvic Cavity
Located at the back of the body Contains 2 divisions but is one continuous cavity Dorsal Cavity
Formed by the skull Contains the brain Crainal Cavity
Formed by the vetebrae Contains the spinal cord Spinal Cavity
Right Hypochondriac Region Liver Gallbladder Right Kidney
Right Lumbar Region Liver (Tip) Small Intestines Ascending Colon Right Kidney
Right Iliac Region Small Intestines Appendix Cecum and ascending colon
Epigastric Region Stomach Liver Pancreas Right and Left Kidney
Umbilical Region Stomach Pancreas Small Intestines Transverse Colon
Hypogastric Region Small intestines Sigmoid colon Bladder
Left Hyprochondriac Region Stomach Liver (Tip) Left kidney spleen
Left Lumbar Region Small intestines Descending Colon Left Kidney
Left Iliac Region Small intestines Descending Colon Sigmoid colon
Plasma Membrane Surrounds the cell and regulates the passage of substances in and out of the cell
Mitochonria Acts like a digestive system takes in nutrients and breaks them down, creating energy rich molecules for the cell
Golgi Apparatus Sorting and packaging of proteins
Lysosomes Digests excess/worn out organelles (stomach of the cell)
Nucleus Control center of the cell
Nuclear Envelope Regulates the passage of molecules into the nucleus
Nucleolus Assemble ribosomes, largest structure in the cell is the nucleus
Chromosomes Things that make organisms what they are
Rough ER Responsible for the assembly of many proteins
Smooth ER Works as a packaging system
Ribosomes Makes new proteins
Centriole Organizing chromosomes helps the cells when it comes time to divide
Cilia Move liquid past the surface of the cell.
Chromatin Thread-like structure composed of DNA and protein.
When a cell begins to divide, the Chromatin coils tightly into short, rod-like structures Chromosomes
Cytoplasm Gel-like substance that pills the space between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
Passive Transport includes diffusion, osmosis, filteration, and facilitated diffusion, does not require the cells to expend energy
Diffusion Involves the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Diffusion continues until the particles are evenly distributed, the point at which no further diffusion occurs is.. Equilibrium
A difference in concentration of a substance from one point to another is Concentration Gradient
A Type of diffusion, ---- involves the diffusion of water down the concentration gradient through a selectively premeable membrane Osmosis
Water pressure that develops in a solution as a result of osmosis osmotic pressure
and it's more concentrated on one side of the membrane than on the other osmosis will occur. The ability of a solution to affect the fluid volume and pressure in a cell through osmosis is called... Tonicity
Isotonic Concentration of solutes is the same as it is in the cell.
Hypertonic Contains higher concentration of solutes compared to the fluid within the cell
Hypotonic Contains lower concentration of solutes compared to the fluid within a cell
Filtration occurs because of differences in pressure. Filtration, water and dissolve particles are forced acrossed a membrane from an area of higher to lower hydrostatic pressure
Facilitated Diffusion Some molecules need other molecules to help or facilitate their movement across a membrane
Crucial pump regulates the volume of fluid within cells. Sodium-Potassium Pump
Active Transport Solutes move up the concentration gradient from areas of lesser to greater concentration- requires energy
Phagocytosis (Cell Eating) occurs when the cell engulfs a solid particle and brings it into a cell.
Pinocytosis (Cell Drinking) occurs when tiny vacuoles bring droplets of extracellular fluid containing dissolved substances into the cell.
Exocytosis Uses vesicles to release substances outside of the cell
Endocytosis Form a vesicular transport that brings substances into the cell.
When a Cell doubles what phase is that? Interphase- DNA replication
Mitosis When the cell splits into 2 identical daughter cells
The only cells that don't divide through mitosis are sex cells (eggs/sperm) that's called Meosis
Created by: kayley911



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