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Anatomy Ch2 Vocab

vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
ACIDS: A substance that releases Hydrogen ions when in a solution; a proton donor
ACTIVATION ENERGY: The amount of energy required to push a reactant to the level necessary for action
ACTIVE SITES: Region on the surface of a functional (globular) protein where it binds & interacts chemically with other molecules of complementary shape & charge
ADENINE (A): One of the two major purines found in both RNA & DNA; also found in various free nucleotides of importance to the body, such as ATP
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP): Organic molecule that stores & releases chemical energy for use in body cells
ALPHA ( ) – HELIX-DOUBLE HELIX: The most common type of secondary structure of the amino acid chain in proteins; resembles the coils of a telephone cord. Assumed by two strands of DNA, held throughout their length by Hydrogen bonds between bases on opposite strands
AMINE: Any one of a group of nitrogen-containing organic compounds that are formed when one or more of the hydrogens of ammonia have been replaced by one or more hydrocarbon radicals
ACIDS: A substance that releases Hydrogen ions when in a solution; a proton donor
ACTIVATION ENERGY: The amount of energy required to push a reactant to the level necessary for action
ACTIVE SITES: Region on the surface of a functional (globular) protein where it binds & interacts chemically with other molecules of complementary shape & charge
ADENINE (A): One of the two major purines found in both RNA & DNA; also found in various free nucleotides of importance to the body, such as ATP
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP): Organic molecule that stores & releases chemical energy for use in body cells
ALPHA ( ) – HELIX-DOUBLE HELIX: The most common type of secondary structure of the amino acid chain in proteins; resembles the coils of a telephone cord. Assumed by two strands of DNA, held throughout their length by Hydrogen bonds between bases on opposite strands
AMINE: Any one of a group of nitrogen-containing organic compounds that are formed when one or more of the hydrogens of ammonia have been replaced by one or more hydrocarbon radicals
AMINO ACID: Organic compound containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen & oxygen; building block of protein
AMMONIA (NH3): Common waste product of protein breakdown in the body; a colorless volatile gas, very soluble in water & capable of forming a weak base; a proton acceptor
ANABOLIC: Synthesis reactions, the basis of constructive activities in body cells
ANIONS: An ion carrying one or more negative charges & therefore attracted to a positive pole
ATOMS: Smallest particle of an elemental substance that exhibits the properties of that element, (Protons, electrons & neutrons).
ATOMIC WEIGHT: Average of the relative weights (mass numbers) of all the isotopes of an element
AVOGADRO’S NUMBER: Number of molecules in one mole of any substance, 6.02 x 10 23.
BASE: A substance capable of binding with Hydrogen ions; a proton acceptor
BETA ( ) – PLEATED: A secondary structure, linked side by side by hydrogen bonds to form a pleated ribbonlike strand
BICARBONATE ION: (HCO3-): An important base in the body
BIOCHEMISTRY: Study of chemical composition & reactions of living matter
CARBOHYDRATES: Organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen; includes starches, sugars, & cellose
CARBONIC ACID-BICARBONATE SYSTEM: Chemical blood buffer
CATABOLIC: Degradative processes that occur in body cells
CATION: An ion with a positive charge
CATALYSTS: Substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself becoming chemically changed or part of the product
CHEMICAL BONDS: An energy relationship holding atoms together; involves interaction of electrons
CHEMICAL ENERGY: Energy stored in the bond of chemical substances
CHEMICAL EQUATIONS: Chemical reactions written down in symbolic form H + H = H2
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM: A state of apparent repose created by tow reactions proceeding in opposite directions at equal speeds
CHEMICAL REACTION: Process in which molecules are formed, changed or broken down
COLLOIDS: A mixture in which the solute particles (usually proteins) do not settle out readily. Colloid in the thyroid gland contains thyroglobulin protein.
COMBINATION OR SYNTHESIS REACTION: A chemical reaction in which larger more complex atoms or molecules are formed from simpler ones. A + B = AB
COMPLEMENTARY BASE: Refers to the ability of a nitrogenous base of DNA or RNA to bond to another nitrogenous base. For example, (A) adenine is the complementary base of thymine (T). The result is base pairing.
COMPOUND: Substance composed of two or more different elements, the atoms of which are chemically united
COVALENT BONDS: Chemical bond created by electron sharing between atoms
CRYSTALS: Large arrays of cations & anions held together by ionic bonds. A highly ordered 3-D lattice; formed when an element or compound solidifies or is in a dry state
CYTOSINE (C ) : Nitrogen- containing base that is part of a nucleotide structure
DECOMPOSITION REACTION: Chemical reaction in which a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules or constituent atoms. AB= A+B
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS: Process by which a large molecule is synthesized by removing water & covalently bonding smaller molecules together. Two things come together with a byproduct of water.
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA): A nucleic acid found in all living cells; it carries the organism’s hereditary information
DENATURED: When proteins unfold & lose their specific 3-dimensional shape because pH has dropped or temperature rises above normal & H bonds begin to break
DIPOLE: (Polar molecule) Nonsymmetrical molecules that contain electrically unbalanced molecules
DISACCHARIDE: Literally, a double sugar,; e.g., sucrose, lactose
EICOSANOIDS: Diverse lipids derived from a 20-C fatty acid (arachidonic acid) found in all cell membranes
ELECTRICAL ENERGY: Energy formed by the movement of charged particles across cell membranes
ELECTROLYTES: Chemical substances such as salts, acids & bases, that ionize & dissociate in water & are capable of conducting an electrical current
ELECTRONEUTRAL: The Carbon never loses or gains electrons
ELECTRONS: Negative charged subatomic particle, orbits the atoms nucleus
ELECTRONEGATIVITY: Atoms with 6 or 7 valence shell electrons are electron hungry & attract electrons very strongly
ELECTRON SHELLS: Regions of space that consecutively surround the nucleus of an atom (energy levels)
ELECTROPOSITIVE: Atoms with one or two valence shell electrons with a low electron-attracting ability & they usually lose their valence shell electrons
ELEMENTS: One of a limited number of unique varieties of matter that composes substances of all kinds e.g., Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
ENDERGONIC REACTION: Chemical reaction that absorbs energy, e.g., an anabolic reaction
ENERGY: The capacity to do work; may be stored (potential energy) or in action (Kinetic energy).
ENZYMES: A protein that acts as a biological catalyst to speed up a chemical reaction
EXCHANGE OR DISPLACEMENT REACTION: Chemical reaction in which bonds are both made & broken; atoms become combined with different atoms AB +C= AC+B and AB + CD = AD + CB
EXERGONIC REACTION: Chemical reactions that give off energy e.g., a catabolic or oxidative reaction
FATTY ACIDS: Linear chains of carbon & hydrogen atoms (hydrocarbon chains) with an organic acid group at one end. A constituent of fat
FIBROUS PROTEINS (STRUCTURAL PROTEINS): Chief building materials of the body
GLOBULAR PROTEINS (FUNCTIONAL PROTEINS): Compact , spherical proteins
GLYCEROL: A modified simple sugar ( a sugar alcohol); a building block of fats
GUANINE (G): One of two major purines occurring in nucleic acids
HOLOENZYME: Functional enzyme made up of two parts. An apoenzyme ( the protein portion) and a cofactor called a coenzyme.
HYDRATION LAYER: Layers of water molecules
HYDROGEN BONDS: Created by changes in charge, weakest bonds in the body. Small charges due to unequal sharing of electrons in polar covalent bonds. Nearby hydrogen atoms attract and form weak bond.(H atom covalently bonded to a small, electro(-) atom N,O,F – H – N,O,F.
HYDROLYSIS REACTIONS: Process in which water is used to split a substance into smaller particles
HYDROPHOBIC: Water fearing
HYDROPHILIC: Water loving
HYDROXYL IONS: (OH-) An ion liberated when a hydroxide ( a common inorganic base) is dissolved in water
IONIC BOND: Chemical bond formed by electron transfer between atoms. (Salts) Attraction of opposite ions
IONS: Atom with a positive or negative electrical charge
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS: Chemical substances that do not contain carbon, including water, salts, & many acids & bases
ISOMERS: One of two or more substances that has the same molecular formula but with its atoms arranged differently
ISOTOPES: Different atomic forms of the same element, vary only in the number of neutrons they contain, the heavier species tend to be radioactive
KINETIC ENERGY: The energy of motion or movement, e.g., the constant movement of atoms, or the push given to a swinging door that sets it into motion.
LIPID: Organic compound formed of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen; examples are fats & cholesterol
MACROMOLECULES: Large complex molecules containing from 100 to 10,000 amino acids
MASS NUMBER: Sum of the masses of an atoms protons & neutrons
MATTER: Anything that occupies space & has mass
MECHANICAL ENERGY: The energy directly involved in moving matter, e.g., in bicycle riding, the legs provide the mechanical energy moves the pedals
MIXTURES: Substances composed of two or more components physically intermixed
MOLARITY: A way to express the concentration of a solution; moles per liter of solution
MOLE: A mole of any element or compound is equal to its atomic weight or its molecular weight (sum of atomic weights) measured in grams
MOLECULE: Particle consisting of two or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds
MOLECULAR FORMULA: e.g., (H2), (CH4)
MOLECULAR CHAPERONES OR CHAPERONINS: Unrelated globular proteins that help proteins to achieve their functional 3-dimensional structure
MONOSACCHARIDES: Literally, one sugar, building block of carbohydrates; e.g., glucose
NEUTRAL FATS: Consist of fatty acid chains & glycerol; also called triglycerides or triglycerols. Commonly known as oils when liquid
NEUTRALIZAION REACTION: Displacement reaction in which mixing an acid & a base forms water & salt
NEUTRON: Uncharged subatomic particle, found in the atomic nucleus
NONPOLAR MOLECULES: Electrically balanced molecules
NUCLEUS: Control center of a cell; contains genetic material
NUCLEIC ACID: Class of organic molecules that includes DNA & RNA
NUCLEOTIDE: Building block of nucleic acids; consists of a sugar, a nitrogen-containing base & a phosphate group
OCTET RULE OR RULE OF EIGHTS: The tendency of atoms to interact in such a way that they have eight electrons in their valence shell
ORBITALS: Regions around the nucleus in which a given electron or electron pair is likely to be found most of the time
ORBITAL MODEL: Modern model of atomic structure
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: Contain carbon; Any compound composed of atoms (some of which are carbon) held together by covalent bonds
OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTION: (Redox) A reaction that couples the oxidation ( loss of electrons) of one substance with the reduction (gain of electrons) of another substance
OXIDIZED: Reactant losing electrons is referred to as the electron donor
PEPTIDE BOND: Bond joining the amine group of one amino acid to the acid carboxyl group of a second amino acid with the loss of a water molecule
PHOSPHOLIPIDS: Modified lipid, contains phosphorus
pH UNIT: The measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution
PLANETARY MODEL: Outdated model of atomic structure
POLAR COVALENT BONDS: A covalent bond in which there is unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms
POLAR MOLECULES: Nonsymmetrical molecules that contain electrically unbalanced molecules
POLYMERS: A substance of high molecular weight with long, chainlike molecules consisting of many similar (repeated) units
POLYSACCHARIDES: Long chains of simple sugars linked together by dehydration synthesis. Literally, many sugars; a polymer of linked monosaccharides; e.g., starch, glycogen
POTENTIAL ENERGY: Stored or inactive energy
PRODUCTS: Chemicals combined
PROTEIN: Complex substance containing carbon, oxygen, hydrogen & nitrogen; composes 10-30% of cell mass
PROTON: Subatomic particle that bears a positive charge, located in the atomic nucleus
PROTON ACCEPTOR: A substance that takes up Hydrogen ions in detectable amount, and acid
QUATERNARY STRUCTURE: When two or mor polypeptide chains aggregate in a regular manner to form a complex protein. Hemoglobin
RADIOISOTOPES: Isotope that exhibits radioactive behavior
RADIANT OR ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY: Energy that travels in waves
REACTANTS: A substance taking part in a chemical reaction
REDUCED: Reactant taking up the transferred electrons & is called the electron acceptor
RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA): Nucleic acid that contains ribose & the bases A,G,C & U. Carries out DNA’s instructions for protein synthesis
SALT: An ionic compound containing cations other than H+ & anions other than the hydroxyl ion (OH-).
SATURATED: Fatty acid chains with only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms
SOL-GEL TRANSFORMATIONS: Reversible change of a colloid from a fluid(sol) to a more solid(gel) state
SOLUTES: Substance present in smaller amounts
SOLUTIONS: Homogeneous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids or solids
SOLVENT: Substance present in the greatest amount
SUBSTRATE: A reactant on which an enzyme acts to cause a chemical action to proceed
STEROIDS: Group of chemical substances including certain hormones & cholesterol; they are fat soluble & contain little oxygen
STRONG ACIDS: Acids that dissociate completely & irreversibly in water
STRONG BASE: They dissociate easily in water & quickly tie up H+ (Protons).
SUSPENSIONS: Heterogeneous mixtures with large, often visible solutes that tend to settle out
TERTIARY STRUCTURE: Protein structure is a higher level of complexity than the secondary structure on which it is superimposed
THYMINE ( T) : Single-ring base ( a pyrimidine) in DNA
TRANS FATS: Oils that have been solidified by addition of hydrogen atoms at sites of double carbon bonds
TRIGLYCERIDES: Fats & oils composed of fatty acids & glycerol; are the body’s most concentrated source of energy fuel; also known as neutral fats
UNIVERSAL SOLVENT: Water
UNSATURATED: Fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms
URACIL ( U ): A smaller, single-ring base (a pyrimidine) found in RNA
VALENCE SHELL: Outermost electron shell (energy level) of an atom that contains electrons
WEAK BASE: Acids that don’t dissociate completely, like carbonic acid (H2CO3) & acetic acid (HAc). Ionizes incompletely & reversibly
Created by: janybee